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Acta Metall Sin  2023, Vol. 59 Issue (1): 75-86    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2022.00431
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Composition Design of Additive Manufacturing Materials Based on High Throughput Preparation
ZHANG Baicheng1,2(), ZHANG Wenlong1,2, QU Xuanhui1,2
1.Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Advanced Material & Technology Institute, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2.Beijing Laboratory of Metallic Materials and Processing for Modern Transportation, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
Cite this article: 

ZHANG Baicheng, ZHANG Wenlong, QU Xuanhui. Composition Design of Additive Manufacturing Materials Based on High Throughput Preparation. Acta Metall Sin, 2023, 59(1): 75-86.

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As a new manufacturing technology, additive manufacturing has brought about revolutionary changes in the aerospace, transportation, and biomedicine fields. However, since the metal materials used in additive manufacturing are still mainly traditional alloys, some of them are unsuitable for high-energy beam processing, indicating room for performance improvements. Besides, the development of additive manufacturing materials still follows the traditional trial-and-error model, seriously restricting the development of high-performance materials. Therefore, this paper discusses this situation and the existing additive manufacturing technology problems of steel, titanium alloys, and aluminum alloys, after which the application of high-throughput preparation and characterization technologies in material development and design were expounded. Combined with the principle and characteristics of high-throughput additive manufacturing preparations, the prospects and challenges of the high-throughput preparation and characterization technology of additive manufacturing in material development were expounded. Then, futuristic developmental directions of key materials for additive manufacturing development and composition optimization were proposed.

Key words:  additive manufacturing      high-throughput preparation and characterization      materials development      mechanical property     
Received:  31 August 2022     
ZTFLH:  TG174.7  
Fund: National Key Research and Development Program of China(2021YFB3802300);National Natural Science Foundation of China(51901020);National Natural Science Foundation of China(52171026)
About author:  ZHANG Baicheng, associate professor, Tel: (010)82663610, E-mail:

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Fig.1  Comparison of the high-throughput material development process (a) with traditional trial-and-error material development process (b)
Fig.2  Improving the performance of key aerospace materials by high-throughput additive manufacturing technology[12-15] (BD—building direction, UTS—ultimate tensile strength, YS—yield strength, wNi—mass fraction of Ni)
Fig.3  Solidification curves and crystal growth diagrams (a)[17], grain structures of additive manufacturing aluminum alloy before (b)[21] and after (c)[22] modification, and high-throughput composition optimizations of aluminum alloy (d)[26] (Insets in Fig.3d show microstructure evolution of 1.3% and 2.4%Nb (atomic fraction) modified additive manufacturing aluminum alloy)
Fig.4  Microstructures of α (a)[30], α + β (b)[31],and β (c)[32] titanium alloys by additive manufacturing, and mechanical properties distribution in transverse and longitudinal directions of additive manufacturing titanium alloy (d)[33-37] (Z—building direction, αGB—grain boundary of α phase. Inset in Fig.4b shows fine layered Widmanst?tten structure, Xxz plane)
Fig.5  Microstructure morphologies of Ti6Al4V (a) and Ti-8.5Cu (b) alloys, and grain growth mechanism of additive manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy and Ti-8.5Cu alloy, and tensile property curves of additive manufactured Ti-Cu alloy (c)[38] (Inset in Fig.5b shows the high magnified image of equiaxed grain structure. Inset in Fig.5c shows Ti-8.5Cu alloy has higher constitutional supercooling ability. CS—constitutional supercooling, TA—melt temperature, TE—equilibrium liquidus temperature, ΔTCS—amount of constitutional supercooling in front of the growing solid that provides the nucleation undercooling, ΔTn—critical undercooling for nucleation. ΔTCS(= TE- TA) and the value of ΔTn is qualitatively represented by the length bar, and the gray shape represents the grain morphology of the alloy)
Fig.6  Changes of element composition (mass fraction, %) and microstructure of additive manufactured steel
(a) ferritic stainless steel[43] (b) austenitic stainless steel[44]
(c) maraging steel[45] (d) carbon-containing tool steel H13[46]
Fig.7  Microstructures of new duplex steel (a)[58] and new Damascus steel (b)[15], performance range of additive manufacturing steel and future performance trend of dual-phase steel (c)[46,48~50,56,58~73], and high-throughput characterization and analysis of additive manufactured gradient stainless steel: microstructures (d), XRD spectra (e), phase composition ratio (f), and hardness curve (g) of SS431-SS316L composition gradient stainless steel (All show a continuous change trend with the change of composition gradient)[74]
Fig.8  Schematics of gradient material preparation principle of directed energy deposition (DED) (a)[12], selective laser melting (SLM) interlayer powder exchange (b)[76], SLM inclined hopper powder mixing process (c)[77], and their sample comparison (d-f)[12,13,76]; and the common high-throughput analysis methods characterization of the structure of gradient samples (atomic fraction) by high-throughput SEM (g)[78] and characterization of phase composition of gradient samples by high-throughput XRD (h)[13] (Inset in Fig.8e shows the gradient transition of the material. FGM—functionally graded material)
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