Please wait a minute...
金属学报  2012, Vol. 48 Issue (6): 678-686    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1037.2012.00101
  论文 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 |
结构变化对\Cu/Sn-58Bi/Cu微焊点电迁移行为和组织演变的影响
岳武,秦红波,周敏波,马骁,张新平
华南理工大学材料科学与工程学院, 广州 510640
INFLUENCE OF SOLDER JOINT CONFIGURATION ON ELECTROMIGRATION BEHAVIOR AND MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF Cu/Sn-58Bi/Cu MICROSCALE JOINTS
YUE Wu, QIN Hongbo, ZHOU Minbo, MA Xiao, ZHANG Xinping
School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640
全文: PDF(3951 KB)  
摘要: 利用SEM观察、聚焦离子束(FIB)微区分析和有限元模拟对比研究了直角型和线型Cu/Sn-58Bi/Cu微焊点在高电流密度下(1.5×104A/cm2)的电迁移行为, 从原子扩散距离和微区域电阻变化及阴阳极物相变化的角度研究了焊点结构变化对电迁移影响的机理. 结果表明, 2种焊点通电112和224 h后均发生了Bi向阳极迁移并聚集及 Sn在阴极富集的现象; 直角型焊点阳极由于Bi聚集后膨胀而产生压应力进而导致小丘状凸起和微裂纹出现, 而阴极存在拉应力引发凹陷和微裂纹, 且沿界面呈非均匀变化. 微区组织分析表明, 电迁移作用下焊点内部 Bi原子的扩散速度大于Sn原子的扩散速度. 观察分析和模拟结果还表明, 具有结构不均匀性的直角型焊点中电子流易向电阻较小区域聚集而产生电流拥挤效应, 这是引起直角型焊点电迁移现象严重的根本原因.
关键词 焊点结构电迁移组织演变SnBi钎料电流拥挤效应    
Abstract:With the increasing miniaturization of electronic devices and systems, the pitch size and dimension of solder interconnects become smaller, accordingly the current density in solder interconnects gets higher and this results in severe electromigration (EM) effect that may deteriorate the performance of solder interconnects. The studies on flip chip interconnects have shown that the configurable change of solder joints can significantly affect the electromigration behavior. In this study, the microscale Cu/Sn-58Bi/Cu joints with different geometrical configurations, i.e., right angle-type and line-type solder joints, were designed and the electromigration behavior of joints under a direct current of a density 1.5×104 A/cm2 were investigated by SEM observation, microanalysis based on focused ion beam (FIB) and finite element simulation. The focus was placed on clarifying the influence of the solder joint configuration on the electromigration mechanism of the joint in terms of atomic diffusion distance, microregional resistance change and the change of phases in anode and cathode. Results showed that for both types of solder joints after current stressing for 112 and 224 h, Bi migrated to the anode side and congregated there, while Sn tended to enrich near the cathode side; in particular for the right angle-type solder joint the microscale hillocks and microcracks occurred at the anode side caused by the compressive stress which was attributed to Bi congregation and the consequent volume expansion of the phase, while the microscale concave valleys and microcracks appeared at the cathode side caused by the tensile stress, and it was worth noticing that the phenomenon above happened non-uniformly along the interface in right angle-type joint. The microanalysis results revealed that the diffusion velocity of Bi atoms was faster than that of Sn under current stressing in the solder joint. Furthermore, observations and finite element simulation results showed that for the solder joint with an asymmetrical configuration like the right angle-type solder joint the electrons flowed toward the bottom corner of the joint where the resistance was smaller and thus the current crowding effect occurred, and this was the primary factor for causing the severe electromigration.
Key wordsconfiguration of solder joint    electromigration    microstructural evolution    SnBi solder    current crowding effect
收稿日期: 2012-02-27     
ZTFLH: 

TG113

 
基金资助:

高等学校博士点科研基金项目20110172110003和广东省重大科技专项项目2009A080204005资助

通讯作者: 张新平     E-mail: mexzhang@scut.edu.cn
Corresponding author: Xin-Ping Zhang     E-mail: mexzhang@scut.edu.cn
作者简介: 岳武, 男, 1975年生, 博士生

引用本文:

岳武,秦红波,周敏波,马骁,张新平. 结构变化对\Cu/Sn-58Bi/Cu微焊点电迁移行为和组织演变的影响[J]. 金属学报, 2012, 48(6): 678-686.
YUE Wu, QIN Hong-Bei, ZHOU Min-Bei, MA Xiao, ZHANG Xin-Beng. INFLUENCE OF SOLDER JOINT CONFIGURATION ON ELECTROMIGRATION BEHAVIOR AND MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF Cu/Sn-58Bi/Cu MICROSCALE JOINTS. Acta Metall Sin, 2012, 48(6): 678-686.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1037.2012.00101      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2012/V48/I6/678

[1] Brandenburg S, Yeh S.  Proceedings of Surface Mount International Conference and Exhibition, San Jose, CA: SMTA, 1998: 337

[2] Zeng K, Tu K N.  Mater Sci Eng, 2002; R38: 55

[3] Tu K N.  J Appl Phys, 2003; 94: 5451

[4] Chan Y C, Yang D.  Prog Mater Sci, 2010; 55: 428

[5] Matin M A, Vellinga W P, Geers M G D.  Acta Mater, 2004; 52: 3475

[6] Wu B Y, Alam M O, Chan Y C, Zhong H W.  J Electron Mater, 2008; 37: 469

[7] Gan H, Tu K N.  J Appl Phys, 2005; 97: 063514

[8] Zhang X F, Guo J D, Shang J K.  Scr Mater, 2007; 57: 513

[9] Lin Y H, Hu Y C, Tsai C M, Kao C R, Tu K N.  Acta Mater, 2005; 53: 2029

[10] Liang S W, Chang Y W, Shao T L, Chen C, Tu K N.  Appl Phys Lett, 2006; 89: 022117

[11] Tu K N.  Phys Rev, 1994; 49B: 2030

[12] Ouyang F Y, Chen K, Tu K N, Lai Y S.  Appl Phys Lett, 2007; 91: 231919

[13] Tsai C M, Lin Y L, Tsai J Y, Lai Y S, Kao C R.  J Electron Mater, 2006; 35: 1005

[14] Liang S W, Chiu S H, Chen C.  Appl Phys Lett, 2007; 90: 082103

[15] Ding M, Wang G T, Chao B, Ho P S, Su P, Uehling T.  J Appl Phys, 2006; 99: 094906

[16] Ren F, Nah J W, Tu K N, Xiong B S, Xu L H, Pang J H L.  Appl Phys Lett, 2006; 89: 141914

[17] Yeh E C C, Choi W J, Tu K N, Elenius P, Balkan H.  Appl Phys Lett, 2002; 80: 580

[18] Chen C M, Huang C C, Liao C N, Liou K M.  J Electron Mater, 2007; 36: 760

[19] Gu X, Chan Y C.  J Electron Mater, 2008; 37: 1721

[20] Lee T Y, Tu K N, Kuo S M, Frear D R.  J Appl Phys, 2001; 89: 3189

[21] Blech I A.  J Appl Phys, 1976; 47: 1203

[22] Wei C C, Chen C.  Appl Phys Lett, 2006; 88: 182105

[23] Zhou W, Liu L J, Li B L, Wu P.  Thin Solid Films, 2010; 518: 5875

[24] Sun J, Xu G C, Guo F, Xia Z D, Lei Y P, Shi Y W, Li X Y, Wang X T.  J Mater Sci, 2011; 46: 3544

[25] Yoshida K, Morigami H.  Microelectron Rel, 2004; 44: 303

[26] Harper J M E, Cabral C, Jr., Andricacos P C, Gignac L, Noyan I C, Rodbell K P, Hu C K. J Appl Phys, 1999; 86: 2516
[1] 王涛,万志鹏,李钊,李佩桓,李鑫旭,韦康,张勇. 热处理工艺对GH4720Li合金细晶铸锭组织与热加工性能的影响[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(2): 182-192.
[2] 吴静,刘永长,李冲,伍宇婷,夏兴川,李会军. 高Fe、Cr含量多相Ni3Al基高温合金组织与性能研究进展[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(1): 21-35.
[3] 江河,董建新,张麦仓,姚志浩,杨静. 服役条件下镍基高温合金应力松弛微观机制[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1211-1220.
[4] 陈占兴,丁宏升,陈瑞润,郭景杰,傅恒志. 脉冲电流作用下TiAl合金凝固组织演变及形成机理[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(5): 611-618.
[5] 黄明亮, 孙洪羽. 倒装芯片无铅凸点β-Sn晶粒取向与电迁移交互作用[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(7): 1077-1086.
[6] 毛轶哲, 李建国, 封蕾. 573 K高温时效处理的Al-10Mg合金中粗大β(Al3Mg2)相对热压缩组织演化的影响及机理[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(10): 1451-1460.
[7] 王永金, 宋仁伯, 宋仁峰. 9Cr18合金半固态触变压缩变形行为及组织演变[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(1): 39-46.
[8] 张志杰,黄明亮. Cu/Sn-52In/Cu微焊点液-固电迁移行为研究[J]. 金属学报, 2017, 53(5): 592-600.
[9] 崔君军,陈礼清,李海智,佟伟平. 等温淬火低合金贝氏体球墨铸铁的回火组织与力学性能*[J]. 金属学报, 2016, 52(7): 778-786.
[10] 何岳,向嵩,石维,刘建敏,梁宇,陈朝轶. 冷拔珠光体钢的组织演变对其点蚀行为的影响*[J]. 金属学报, 2016, 52(12): 1536-1544.
[11] 杨亮,高叔博,王艳丽,叶腾,宋霖,林均品. Si对高Nb-TiAl合金组织及室温拉伸性能的影响*[J]. 金属学报, 2015, 51(7): 859-865.
[12] 祁明凡, 康永林, 周冰, 朱国明, 张欢欢. 强制对流搅拌流变压铸AZ91D镁合金的组织与性能*[J]. 金属学报, 2015, 51(6): 668-676.
[13] 袁晓云, 陈礼清. 一种高锰奥氏体TWIP钢的高温热变形与再结晶行为*[J]. 金属学报, 2015, 51(6): 651-658.
[14] 马利平, 梁志强, 王西彬, 赵文祥, 焦黎, 刘志兵. 脉冲磁化处理对M42高速钢刀具组织和力学性能的影响[J]. 金属学报, 2015, 51(3): 307-314.
[15] 黄明亮, 张志杰, 冯晓飞, 赵宁. 液-固电迁移Ni/Sn-9Zn/Ni焊点反极性效应研究[J]. 金属学报, 2015, 51(1): 93-99.