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金属学报  2020, Vol. 56 Issue (6): 821-830    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00306
  本期目录 | 过刊浏览 |
选区激光熔化专用AlSiMg合金成分设计及力学性能
耿遥祥(), 樊世敏, 简江林, 徐澍, 张志杰, 鞠洪博, 喻利花, 许俊华
江苏科技大学材料科学与工程学院 镇江 212003
Mechanical Properties of AlSiMg Alloy Specifically Designed for Selective Laser Melting
GENG Yaoxiang(), FAN Shimin, JIAN Jianglin, XU Shu, ZHANG Zhijie, JU Hongbo, YU Lihua, XU Junhua
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003, China
全文: PDF(4779 KB)   HTML
摘要: 

应用“团簇+连接原子”模型,基于合金液-固局域结构相容性和金属选区激光熔化(SLM)工艺熔体急冷的技术特性,设计高Mg含量SLM专用AlSiMg1.5合金新成分,系统研究时效温度和时间对SLM成形AlSiMg1.5合金显微组织和力学性能的影响。结果表明,通过调整工艺参数,可获得近乎全致密的SLM成形样品。当时效温度为300 ℃时,随着时效时间的延长,SLM成形样品岛状富Al组织中过固溶Si逐渐析出长大,网格状富Si组织逐渐分解球化,样品的硬度和压缩屈服强度逐渐降低,塑性明显增加。当时效温度为150 ℃时,不同时效时间下SLM成形样品的显微组织没有发生明显变化,但硬度和屈服强度随时效时间的延长先增大后略有降低。SLM成形AlSiMg1.5样品经150 ℃时效处理后的最大显微硬度和压缩屈服强度分别为(169±1) HV和(453±4) MPa,样品延伸率超过25%。本工作设计获得了成形性和力学性能优异的SLM专用铝合金新成分Al91.0Si7.5Mg1.5 (质量分数,%)。

关键词 选区激光熔化成分设计AlSiMg1.5合金时效处理显微组织力学性能    
Abstract

Using complex shapes and precise structural parts is becoming a strong trend in modern advanced manufacturing. However, traditional manufacturing technology hardly achieves the complex geometric parts directly. Selective laser melting (SLM) is an advanced manufacturing technology for metallic materials, enables production parts with complex geometry combined with the enhancement of design flexibility. The cooling rate of molten pool can reach 103~106 K/s during the SLM process. In this case, the solid solubility of the alloying elements in the matrix can be greatly enhanced. Aluminum alloy has been widely used in industry. At present, the strength of SLM-formed aluminum alloys is far lower than that of high-strength aluminum alloys obtained from a traditional process. It is necessary to develop high-strength aluminum alloy composition based on SLM technical characteristics. The present study is devoted to design high-strength AlSiMg1.5 aluminum alloy specifically for SLM using the local structure model based on the liquid-solid structural compatibility of the alloy and the technical characteristics of the liquid quenching in SLM. The effect of the ageing treatment on the microstructure, the hardness, and the compressive properties of the SLM-formed AlSiMg1.5 alloy was systematically studied. Almost completely dense samples were obtained by adjusting the parameters of SLM process. When the ageing temperature was 300 ℃, the super-solid solution Si precipitated and grew in the island-like Al-rich structure, and the reticular Si-rich structure decomposed and spheroidized gradually with the increases of ageing time of SLM-formed AlSiMg1.5 samples. In this case, the hardness and the strength of the samples decreased, but the elongation increased significantly. The microstructures of the SLM-formed AlSiMg1.5 samples did not change obviously when the ageing temperature was 150 ℃. But the hardness and yield strength of the samples significantly increased first and then decreased slightly. The maximum microhardness and compressive yield strength of SLM-formed AlSiMg1.5 samples aged at 150 ℃ were (169±1) HV and (453±4) MPa, respectively, and the elongation of samples exceeds 25%. In this study, a special Al91.0Si7.5Mg1.5 (mass fraction, %) aluminum alloy specifically for SLM with excellent formability and mechanical properties was designed.

Key wordsselective laser melting    composition design    AlSiMg1.5 alloy    ageing treatment    microstructure    mechanical property
收稿日期: 2019-09-17     
ZTFLH:  TG146.2  
基金资助:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFB1100103);国家自然科学基金项目(51801079);江苏省自然科学基金青年基金项目(BK20180985);江苏省自然科学基金青年基金项目(BK20180987);江苏省高等学校自然科学研究面上项目(18KJB430011)
通讯作者: 耿遥祥     E-mail: yaoxianggeng@163.com
Corresponding author: GENG Yaoxiang     E-mail: yaoxianggeng@163.com
作者简介: 耿遥祥,男,1986年生,副教授,博士

引用本文:

耿遥祥, 樊世敏, 简江林, 徐澍, 张志杰, 鞠洪博, 喻利花, 许俊华. 选区激光熔化专用AlSiMg合金成分设计及力学性能[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(6): 821-830.
Yaoxiang GENG, Shimin FAN, Jianglin JIAN, Shu XU, Zhijie ZHANG, Hongbo JU, Lihua YU, Junhua XU. Mechanical Properties of AlSiMg Alloy Specifically Designed for Selective Laser Melting. Acta Metall Sin, 2020, 56(6): 821-830.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00306      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2020/V56/I6/821

图1  基于α-(Al, Si)和Mg2Si的[Si-Al12]和[Si-Mg8]团簇
PowderSiMgFeAl
Designed chemical composition7.51.50.0Bal.
Actual chemical composition8.11.40.2Bal.
表1  AlSiMg合金粉末设计化学成分与实际化学成分对比结果 (mass fraction / %)
图2  AlSiMg1.5粉末样品表面SEM像和粒径分布
图3  选区激光熔化(SLM)成形AlSiMg1.5样品宏观照片
图4  激光功率为300 W、扫描速率为800和1200 mm/s时SLM成形AlSiMg1.5样品纵剖面的OM像
图5  SLM成形AlSiMg1.5样品的孔隙率随激光功率和扫描速率的变化
图6  SLM成形AlSiMg1.5样品纵剖面显微组织的SEM像
图7  SLM成形AlSiMg1.5样品的TEM明场像及对应的成分分布
图8  SLM成形AlSiMg1.5样品在300 ℃下时效处理不同时间后的SEM像
图9  SLM成形AlSiMg1.5样品在150 ℃下时效处理18和48 h后显微组织的SEM像
图10  SLM成形AlSiMg1.5样品在不同时效条件下的XRD谱
图 11  SLM成形AlSiMg1.5样品的硬度随时效时间的变化
图12  不同时效条件下SLM成形样品的压缩应力-应变曲线和力学性能
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