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金属学报  2017, Vol. 53 Issue (3): 335-344    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2016.00284
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塑性变形及固溶处理对奥氏体不锈钢晶间腐蚀性能的协同作用研究
张晓嵩1,徐勇1,2,3(),张士宏1,程明1,赵永好2,唐巧生3,丁月霞3
1 中国科学院金属研究所 沈阳 110016
2 南京理工大学材料科学与工程学院 南京 210016
3 江苏华阳金属管件有限公司 镇江 212400
Research on the Collaborative Effect of Plastic Deformation and Solution Treatment in the Intergranular Corrosion Property of Austenite Stainless Steel
Xiaosong ZHANG1,Yong XU1,2,3(),Shihong ZHANG1,Ming CHENG1,Yonghao ZHAO2,Qiaosheng TANG3,Yuexia DING3
1 Institute of Metal Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
2 School of Materials and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210016, China
3 Jiangsu Huayang Metal Pipes Co. Ltd., Zhenjiang 212400, China
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摘要: 

研究了固溶处理制度对不同变形量下的AISI 304奥氏体不锈钢晶间腐蚀性能的影响规律。采用室温单向拉伸实验获取了不同变形量下的AISI 304不锈钢试样,通过XRD测量了其中由于形变诱发的马氏体相的含量,采用电化学动电位再活化法(EPR)研究了固溶处理温度及时间对不同变形量下AISI 304不锈钢晶间腐蚀的影响。实验结果表明,AISI 304不锈钢晶间腐蚀程度随着变形量的增加而提高,而随着固溶处理温度和时间的增加而降低。其原因是由于AISI 304不锈钢形变诱发马氏体相变行为所引起的微观组织变化及其导致的固溶处理初期C元素的偏聚在不同固溶条件下的回复程度不同,从而对后续晶间腐蚀性能产生显著影响。

关键词 奥氏体不锈钢塑性变形马氏体相变固溶处理敏化度晶间腐蚀    
Abstract

AISI 304 austenite stainless steel was applied extensively in the modern industry due to its good properties on mechanics and corrosion resistance. However, there is severe intergranular corrosion when the AISI 304 was working at the temperature 420~850 ℃ called sensitizing temperature. This phenomenon was more obvious with increase of strain. In addition, this effect can not be removed completely even with the heat treatment subsequently. In present work, the influence of solution treatment and plastic deformation on the intergranular corrosion property of AISI 304 was investigated. The specimens subjected to different strain were obtained by the uniaxial tensile tests at room temperature. XRD was used to measure the fraction of martensitic phase which was induced by deformation. Optical metal lographic microscope was applied to observe the evolution of microstructure. The influence of various deformation values, solution temperature and holding time on intergranular corrosion was quantitative analyzed by electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (EPR) method. Experimental results showed that the degree of the intergranular corrosion increased with the increase of deformation, and with the decrease of solution temperature and holding time. It is indicated that since the solubility of carbon in martensite and austenite is discrepant, the content of carbon in the grains recrystallized is discrepant too. The more martensite is transformed, the more chromium carbide is formed in the grain boundary after sensitization. This phenomenon causes poor intergranular corrosion resistance due to the lack of chromium. In addition, the carbon segregation which is caused by plastic deformation will relieve with the rise of solution temperature and holding time. It is because that the carbon atom is more active at higher temperature, and the distribution of carbon is more homogeneous with the extended holding time. Then the quantity of chromium carbide will decrease in solution treatment process. Consequently the chromium depletion will be mitigated. From the above, a uniform solution treatment condition is not suitable for austenite stainless steel with the effect of martensitic transformation in cold working. Flexible scheme can be employed to insure better combination property of products.

Key wordsaustenite stainless steel    plastic deformation    martensitic transformation    solution treatment    sensitization    intergranular corrosion
收稿日期: 2016-07-05     
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目No.51304186及中国博士后科学基金项目No.2016M590454

引用本文:

张晓嵩,徐勇,张士宏,程明,赵永好,唐巧生,丁月霞. 塑性变形及固溶处理对奥氏体不锈钢晶间腐蚀性能的协同作用研究[J]. 金属学报, 2017, 53(3): 335-344.
Xiaosong ZHANG, Yong XU, Shihong ZHANG, Ming CHENG, Yonghao ZHAO, Qiaosheng TANG, Yuexia DING. Research on the Collaborative Effect of Plastic Deformation and Solution Treatment in the Intergranular Corrosion Property of Austenite Stainless Steel. Acta Metall Sin, 2017, 53(3): 335-344.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2016.00284      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2017/V53/I3/335

图1  热处理工艺示意图
图2  不同变形量下304不锈钢的XRD谱和马氏体相含量
γ (fcc) α' (bcc) ε (hcp)
[hkl] (sinθ)/λ f [hkl] (sinθ)/λ f [hkl] (sinθ)/λ f
[111] 2.4099 17.55 [110] 2.4571 17.39 [100] 2.2726 18.00
[200] 2.7681 16.37 [200] 3.4724 14.51 [101] 2.5772 17.00
[220] 3.9324 13.46 [211] 4.2574 12.86 [102] 3.3325 14.84
[311] 4.6086 12.27 [220] 4.8263 11.90
表1  AISI 304不锈钢在X射线下的原子散射系数
图3  敏化度在EPR曲线上的读取及计算方法
γ (fcc) α' (bcc) ε (hcp)
[hkl] P [hkl] P [hkl] P
[111] 8 [110] 12 [100] 6
[200] 6 [200] 6 [101] 12
[220] 12 [211] 24 [102] 12
[311] 24 [220] 12
表2  AISI 304不锈钢中各相的多重性因子
γ (fcc) α' (bcc) ε (hcp)
[hkl] 2θ / (°) DWF [hkl] 2θ / (°) DWF [hkl] 2θ / (°) DWF
[111] 43.6 0.963 [110] 44.5 0.961 [100] 41.0 0.967
[200] 50.5 0.951 [200] 64.7 0.925 [101] 46.8 0.958
[220] 74.6 0.904 [211] 82.0 0.889 [102] 61.8 0.930
[311] 90.5 0.871 [220] 96.1 0.860
表3  AISI 304不锈钢的Debye-Waller 因子
图4  不同变形量下试样的极化曲线
图5  不同固溶温度和时间下试样的敏化度
图6  固溶温度1000 ℃、0.5 h的不同变形量试样的OM像
图7  1000 ℃固溶0.5 h、650 ℃敏化2 h后试样在不同变形量下的OM像
图8  变形量为30%、不同固溶时间和温度的试样OM像
图9  变形量为30%,不同时间和温度固溶处理后的EPR试样OM像
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