Please wait a minute...
Acta Metall Sin  2017, Vol. 53 Issue (7): 879-887    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2016.00436
Orginal Article Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Study on Nano-Crystallization Mechanism and Tribological Performance of Amorphous Carbon-Based Coatings
Dan DONG,Bailing JIANG(),Meng GUO,Chao YANG
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China
Download:  HTML  PDF(1116KB) 
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

Amorphous carbon coatings mainly composed of sp3 and sp2 bonds have a great potential to be widely used in modern industry for their attractive properties, such as high hardness, high wear resistance and low friction coefficient. However, the high internal stress and poor adhesion of amorphous carbon coatings limit the range of industrial applications. In order to reduce the internal stress and improve the tribological performance, a series of carbon-based coatings with different atomic fraction of Cr were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of coatings was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS and Raman spectra. The mechanical and tribological properties of coatings were analyzed. The results showed that with the increase of atomic fraction of Cr, the carbon-based coatings changed from amorphous structure to nano-crystalline/amorphous composite structure, the ratio of sp2 bond increased and the ratio of sp3 bond decreased gradually. Also, the hardness and the internal stress showed a decreasing trend with the increase of atomic fraction of Cr. In addition, a small amount of Cr doping could effectively reduce the friction coefficient and specific wear rates of coatings. Excessive Cr doping is beneficial to the increase of the ratio of sp2 bond, however, the dispersion distribution of the metal phase leads to the increase of the friction coefficient and specific wear rates, so that the tribological properties were deteriorated.

Key words:  carbon-based coating      Cr content      microstructure      tribological performance     
Received:  05 October 2016     
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51271144)

Cite this article: 

Dan DONG,Bailing JIANG,Meng GUO,Chao YANG. Study on Nano-Crystallization Mechanism and Tribological Performance of Amorphous Carbon-Based Coatings. Acta Metall Sin, 2017, 53(7): 879-887.

URL:     OR

Sample No. I / A U / V p / (Wcm-2) cCr / % d / nm
1 0 0 0 0.0 869
2 0.05 300 0.33 2.0 894
3 0.10 320 0.71 6.5 1067
4 0.20 330 1.50 17.3 1094
5 0.30 340 2.30 25.5 1227
Table 1  Deposition parameters of carbon coatings
Fig.1  Surface morphologies of coatings with different atomic fractions of Cr

(a) 0 (b) 2.0% (c) 6.5% (d) 17.3% (e) 25.5%

Fig.2  Raman spectra of coatings with different atomic fractions of Cr
Fig.3  ID/IG and G-peak position of coatings with different atomic fractions of Cr (FWHM(G)—full width at half maximum, Disp(G)—G peak dispersion, ID/IG—intensity ratio of D and G peaks)
Fig.4  C1s spectra of coatings with different atomic fractions of Cr
Fig.5  Fitting results of C1s spectra of coatings with different atomic fractions of Cr
Fig.6  XRD spectra of coatings with different atomic fractions of Cr
Fig.7  HRTEM images and SAED patterns (insets) of working layer in coatings with 2.0%Cr (a) and 25.5%Cr (b)
Fig.8  Mechanical properties of coatings with different atomic fractions of Cr
Fig.9  Friction coefficients of coatings with different atomic fractions of Cr
Fig.10  Specific wear rates of coatings with different atomic fractions of Cr
Fig.11  Wear tracks of coatings with different atomic fractions of Cr

(a) 0 (b) 2.0% (c) 6.5% (d) 17.3% (e) 25.5%

[1] Du D X, Liu D X, Ye Z Y, et al.Fretting wear and fretting fatigue behaviors of diamond-like carbon and graphite-like carbon films deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloy[J]. Appl. Surf. Sci., 2014, 313: 462
[2] Kornaev A, Savin L, Kornaeva E, et al.Influence of the ultrafine oil additives on friction and vibration in journal bearings[J]. Tribol. Int., 2016, 101: 131
[3] Lan Z C, Liu S H, Xiao H P, et al.Frictional behavior of wax-oil gels[J]. Tribol. Int., 2016, 96: 122
[4] Wei J, Cui G J.Friction and wear behavior of Fe-Cr-B alloys in liquid paraffin oil[J]. J. Tribol., 2015, 137: 031603
[5] Vanhulsel A, Velasco F, Jacobs R, et al.DLC solid lubricant coatings on ball bearings for space applications[J]. Tribol. Int., 2007, 40: 1186
[6] Yonekura D, Chittenden R J, Dearnley P A.Wear mechanisms of steel roller bearings protected by thin, hard and low friction coatings[J]. Wear, 2005, 259: 779
[7] Wu X, Ohana T, Tanaka A, et al.Tribochemical reaction of Si-DLC coating in water studied by stable isotopic tracer[J]. Diamond Relat. Mater., 2008, 17: 147
[8] Modabberasl A, Kameli P, Ranjbar M, et al.Fabrication of DLC thin films with improved diamond-like carbon character by the application of external magnetic field[J]. Carbon, 2015, 94: 485
[9] Sheeja D, Tay B K, Yu L J, et al.Fabrication of amorphous carbon cantilever structures by isotropic and anisotropic wet etching methods[J]. Diamond Relat. Mater., 2003, 12: 1495
[10] Weissmantel S, Reisse G, Rost D. Preparation of superhard amorphous carbon films with low internal stress [J]. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2004, 188-189: 268
[11] Zhang Y B, Lau S P, Sheeja D, et al.Study of mechanical properties and stress of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films prepared by pulse biasing[J]. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2005, 195: 338
[12] Viana G A, Lacerda R G, Freire Jr F L, et al. ESR investigation of graphite-like amorphous carbon films revealing itinerant states as the ones responsible for the signal[J]. J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 2008, 354: 2135
[13] Field S K, Jarratt M, Teer D G.Tribological properties of graphite-like and diamond-like carbon coatings[J]. Tribol. Int., 2004, 37: 949
[14] Wang Y J, Li H X, Ji L, et al.Microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering[J]. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2011, 205: 3058
[15] Wang Y X, Li J L, Shan L.Tribological performances of the graphite-like carbon films deposited with different target powers in ambient air and distilled water[J]. Tribol. Int., 2014, 73: 17
[16] Camino D, Jones A H S, Mercs D, et al. High performance sputtered carbon coatings for wear resistant applications[J]. Vacuum, 1999, 52: 125
[17] Fox V, Jones A, Renevier N M, et al.Hard lubricating coatings for cutting and forming tools and mechanical components[J]. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2000, 125: 347
[18] Singh V, Jiang J C, Meletis E I.Cr-diamondlike carbon nanocomposite films: Synthesis, characterization and properties[J]. Thin Solid Films, 2005, 489: 150
[19] Hovsepian P E, Lewis D B, Constable C, et al. Combined steered cathodic arc/unbalanced magnetron grown C/Cr nanoscale multilayer coatings for tribological applications [J]. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2003, 174-175: 762
[20] Yang Y Y, Peng Z J, Fu Z Q, et al.Study on W graded doping DLC composite films with multicomponent transition layer[J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2010, 46: 34
[20] (杨义勇, 彭志坚, 付志强等. 多组分缓冲层W梯度掺杂DLC复合薄膜研究[J]. 金属学报, 2010, 46: 34)
[21] Nie C Y, Zhang B Y, Xie H M.Structure analysis of Ti-doped DLC coatings deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering[J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2007, 43: 1207
[21] (聂朝胤, 张碧云, 谢红梅. 非平衡磁控溅射掺Ti类金刚石薄膜的结构分析[J]. 金属学报, 2007, 43: 1207)
[22] Wu Z Z, Tian X B, Cheng S D, et al.Microstructure and mechanical properties of DLC films doped with high crystallinity CrN nanoparticles[J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2012, 48: 283
[22] (吴忠振, 田修波, 程思达等. 高结晶度CrN纳米粒子掺杂的DLC薄膜的显微结构及力学性能[J]. 金属学报, 2012, 48: 283)
[23] Sheeja D, Tay B K, Sun C Q, et al.Characterization of Ti-containing amorphous carbon films prepared on titanium substrates[J]. J. Mater. Sci., 2003, 38: 421
[24] Wang A Y, Lee K R, Ahn J P, et al.Structure and mechanical properties of W incorporated diamond-like carbon films prepared by a hybrid ion beam deposition technique[J]. Carbon, 2006, 44: 1826
[25] Fu R K Y, Mei Y F, Fu M Y, et al. Thermal stability of metal-doped diamond-like carbon fabricated by dual plasma deposition[J]. Diamond Relat. Mater., 2005, 14: 1489
[26] Uglov V V, Kuleshov A K, Rusalsky D P, et al. Wear-resistant metal-carbon composite coating [J]. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2000, 128-129: 150
[27] Yang S, Teer D G.Investigation of sputtered carbon and carbon/chromium multi-layered coatings[J]. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2000, 131: 412
[28] Yang S, Li X, Renevier N M, et al. Tribological properties and wear mechanism of sputtered C/Cr coating [J]. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2001, 142-144: 85
[29] Ferrari A C, Robertson J.Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon[J]. Phys. Rev., 2000, 61B: 14095
[30] Gradowski M V, Ferrari A C, Ohr R, et al. Resonant Raman characterisation of ultra-thin nano-protective carbon layers for magnetic storage devices [J]. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2003, 174-175: 246
[31] Kanda K, Yamada N, Okada M, et al.Graphitization of thin films formed by focused-ion-beam chemical-vapor-deposition[J]. Diamond Relat. Mater., 2009, 18: 490
[32] Liu L, Wang T, Huang J L, et al.Diamond-like carbon thin films with high density and low internal stress deposited by coupling DC/RF magnetron sputtering[J]. Diamond Relat. Mater., 2016, 70: 151
[33] Chiu S M, Lee S C, Wang C H, et al.Electrical and mechanical properties of DLC coatings modified by plasma immersion ion implantation[J]. J. Alloys Compd., 2008, 449: 379
[34] Tsai P C, Chen K H.Evaluation of microstructures and mechanical properties of diamond like carbon films deposited by filtered cathodic arc plasma[J]. Thin Solid Films, 2008, 516: 5440
[35] Holmberg K, Ronkainen H, Laukkanen A, et al.Friction and wear of coated surfaces-scales, modelling and simulation of tribomechanisms[J]. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2007, 202: 1034
[36] Wang Y X, Wang L P, Li J L, et al.Tribological properties of graphite-like carbon coatings coupling with different metals in ambient air and water[J]. Tribol. Int., 2013, 60: 147
[1] GENG Yaoxiang, FAN Shimin, JIAN Jianglin, XU Shu, ZHANG Zhijie, JU Hongbo, YU Lihua, XU Junhua. Mechanical Properties of AlSiMg Alloy Specifically Designed for Selective Laser Melting[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(6): 821-830.
[2] YU Jiaying, WANG Hua, ZHENG Weisen, HE Yanlin, WU Yurui, LI Lin. Effect of the Interface Microstructure of Hot-Dip Galvanizing High-Strength Automobile Steel on Its Tensile Fracture Behaviors[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(6): 863-873.
[3] HUANG Yuan, DU Jinlong, WANG Zumin. Progress in Research on the Alloying of Binary Immiscible Metals[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(6): 801-820.
[4] ZHAO Yanchun, MAO Xuejing, LI Wensheng, SUN Hao, LI Chunling, ZHAO Pengbiao, KOU Shengzhong, Liaw Peter K.. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Fe-15Mn-5Si-14Cr-0.2C Amorphous Steel[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(5): 715-722.
[5] LIU Zhenpeng, YAN Zhiqiao, CHEN Feng, WANG Shuncheng, LONG Ying, WU Yixiong. Fabrication and Performance Characterization of Cu-10Sn-xNi Alloy for Diamond Tools[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(5): 760-768.
[6] LI Xiucheng,SUN Mingyu,ZHAO Jingxiao,WANG Xuelin,SHANG Chengjia. Quantitative Crystallographic Characterization of Boundaries in Ferrite-Bainite/Martensite Dual-Phase Steels[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(4): 653-660.
[7] YANG Ke,SHI Xianbo,YAN Wei,ZENG Yunpeng,SHAN Yiyin,REN Yi. Novel Cu-Bearing Pipeline Steels: A New Strategy to Improve Resistance to Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion for Pipeline Steels[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(4): 385-399.
[8] QIAN Yue,SUN Rongrong,ZHANG Wenhuai,YAO Meiyi,ZHANG Jinlong,ZHOU Bangxin,QIU Yunlong,YANG Jian,CHENG Guoguang,DONG Jianxin. Effect of Nb on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Fe22Cr5Al3Mo Alloy[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(3): 321-332.
[9] XIAO Hong,XU Pengpeng,QI Zichen,WU Zonghe,ZHAO Yunpeng. Preparation of Steel/Aluminum Laminated Composites by Differential Temperature Rolling with Induction Heating[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(2): 231-239.
[10] CHENG Chao,CHEN Zhiyong,QIN Xushan,LIU Jianrong,WANG Qingjiang. Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Property ofTA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(2): 193-202.
[11] DENG Congkun,JIANG Hongxiang,ZHAO Jiuzhou,HE Jie,ZHAO Lei. Study on the Solidification of Ag-Ni Monotectic Alloy[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(2): 212-220.
[12] WANG Tao,WAN Zhipeng,LI Zhao,LI Peihuan,LI Xinxu,WEI Kang,ZHANG Yong. Effect of Heat Treatment Parameters on Microstructure and Hot Workability of As-Cast Fine Grain Ingot of GH4720Li Alloy[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(2): 182-192.
[13] JIANG He,DONG Jianxin,ZHANG Maicang,YAO Zhihao,YANG Jing. Stress Relaxation Mechanism for Typical Nickel-Based Superalloys Under Service Condition[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1211-1220.
[14] ZHANG Beijiang,HUANG Shuo,ZHANG Wenyun,TIAN Qiang,CHEN Shifu. Recent Development of Nickel-Based Disc Alloys andCorresponding Cast-Wrought Processing Techniques[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1095-1114.
[15] Jinyao MA,Jin WANG,Yunsong ZHAO,Jian ZHANG,Yuefei ZHANG,Jixue LI,Ze ZHANG. Investigation of In Situ 1150 High Temperature Deformation Behavior and Fracture Mechanism of a Second Generation Single Crystal Superalloy[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(8): 987-996.
No Suggested Reading articles found!