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Acta Metall Sin  2020, Vol. 56 Issue (2): 231-239    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00150
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Preparation of Steel/Aluminum Laminated Composites by Differential Temperature Rolling with Induction Heating
XIAO Hong,XU Pengpeng,QI Zichen(),WU Zonghe,ZHAO Yunpeng
National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China
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Abstract  

Both cold-rolled and hot-rolled steel/aluminum laminated composites exhibited obvious strain-hardening of steel layer because the rolling temperature, limited by the melting point of aluminum (about 660 ℃), was lower than dynamic recrystallization temperature of steel (about 710 ℃). This led to poor deformation ability of composite plates and subsequent processing cracks. And the initial bonding of cold-rolled steel/aluminum composite plates usually required more than 50% highly first pass reduction, which resulted in high requirement for rolling mill capacity, especially for medium or thick size composite plates. To solve above two problems simultaneously, in this study, the steel/aluminum composite plates were prepared by differential temperature rolling (DTR) with induction heating in an argon atmosphere. The bonding properties and microstructure of the steel/aluminum laminated composites were studied, and the effect of DTR process on the bonding properties was analyzed compared with the cold rolling process. The results show that dynamic recovery and recrystallization occurred with equiaxed grains appearing in the structure of the rolled carbon steel due to the higher heating temperature of the steel layer, and an equiaxed fine grain zone with an average grain size of approximately 5 μm was formed near the interface of the steel side, which greatly reduced the hardening phenomenon of the laminated composites compared with the cold rolled clad plate. The micro-interface of DTR steel/aluminum clad plate was tightly bonded without holes and gaps. The diffusion width of Al and Fe elements across the interface reached 2.4 μm, indicating the clad plate achieved a good metallurgical bonding state, and the fine grained zone near the interface improved the properties of the sheet. The combined effect made the shear strength of the DTR clad plates much higher than that of the cold-rolled plate. At 45% reduction, the shear strength of DTR composite plate reached 85 MPa, which was 7 times of cold-rolled composite plate with the same reduction (12 MPa). The fracture of cold-rolled composite plate occurred at the steel/aluminum interface, showing brittle fracture, while the fracture of DTR clad plates occurred in the aluminum alloy matrix with a large number of dimples in the shear section, showing the characteristics of plastic fracture.

Key words:  steel/aluminum composite plate      induction heating      differential temperature rolling      shear strength      microstructure     
Received:  08 May 2019     
ZTFLH:  TG335.81  
Fund: National Natural Science Foundation of China(51474190);Postgraduate Innovation Funding Project of Hebei Province(CXZZBS2019046)
Corresponding Authors:  Zichen QI     E-mail:  qizichen1992@stumail.ysu.edu.cn

Cite this article: 

XIAO Hong,XU Pengpeng,QI Zichen,WU Zonghe,ZHAO Yunpeng. Preparation of Steel/Aluminum Laminated Composites by Differential Temperature Rolling with Induction Heating. Acta Metall Sin, 2020, 56(2): 231-239.

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https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00150     OR     https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/Y2020/V56/I2/231

MaterialCSPMnSiFeTiCrZnCuMgAl
Q2350.050.010.0150.350.12Bal.------
6061---0.150.660.750.120.200.250.151.15Bal.
Table 1  Chemical compositions of commercial Q235 sheet and 6061 Al alloy sheet (mass fraction / %)

Material

Ultimate tensile strength

MPa

Yield strength

MPa

Shear strength

MPa

Fracture elongation

%

Q235351±5235±4197±436.5±1.5
6061215±4141±3124±324.7±0.8
Table 2  Mechanical properties of the used materials in the experiment
Fig.1  Schematic for the structure of billet plate
Fig.2  Schematic of differential temperature rolling (DTR) process with induction heating
Fig.3  Temperature variations in individual laminated plates under different induction currents and clearances between Q235 and 6061 (?Tmax—maximum temperature difference)(a) 300 A, 0.5 mm (b) 300 A,1 mm (c) 1800 A, 0.5 mm (d) 1800 A, 1 mm
Fig.4  Tensile-shear test and interface observation of the laminated composites(a) schematic of the sample (h0—total thickness, h1—Al thickness)(b) real image of tensile-shear sample (F—maximum shear stress)(c) fractured specimen(d) polished interface
Fig.5  Shear strengths of the laminated composites prepared by DTR and cold rolling (CR) under different reductions
Fig.6  SEM images showing bonding interfaces of laminated composites under different processes(a) CR, 45% reduction (b) CR, 55% reduction (c) CR, 67.5% reduction (d) DTR, 45% reduction
Fig.7  Low (a) and locally high (b) magnified metallographic structures of steel layer of the DTR composite plate
Fig.8  Interface element diffusion curves of the DTR composite plate
Fig.9  Element diffusion widths of the DTR and cold-rolled composite plates
Fig.10  Tensile-shear fracture morphologies and EDS maps (insets) of the laminated composites with 45% reduction(a) CR, steel side (b) CR, Al side (c) DTR, steel side (d) DTR, Al side
PositionFeAlC
195.92.91.2
295.83.40.8
30.699.00.4
40.898.70.5
52.397.50.2
60.299.70.1
Table 3  EDS analysis of points 1~6 in Fig.10 (mass fraction / %)
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