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金属学报  2019, Vol. 55 Issue (9): 1067-1076    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00148
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我国典型金属间化合物基高温结构材料的研究进展与应用
宫声凯1(),尚勇1,张继2,郭喜平3,林均品4,赵希宏5
1. 北京航空航天大学材料科学与工程学院 北京 100191
2. 钢铁研究总院高温材料研究所 北京 100081
3. 西北工业大学凝固技术国家重点实验室 西安 710072
4. 北京科技大学新金属材料国家重点实验室 北京 100083
5. 中国航发北京航空材料研究院 北京 100095
Application and Research of Typical Intermetallics-Based High Temperature Structural Materials in China
GONG Shengkai1(),SHANG Yong1,ZHANG Ji2,GUO Xiping3,LIN Junpin4,ZHAO Xihong5
1. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
2. High Temperature Materials Research Institute, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081, China
3. State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China
4. State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
5. AECC Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095, China
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摘要: 

金属间化合物是由2种或2种以上金属元素或金属元素与类金属元素按照一定原子比组成的化合物。共价键、金属键共存的特点使得金属间化合物在较长范围内存在长程有序的超晶格结构。在高温下,金属间化合物的位错迁移率相对降低,从而具有较高的高温强度。典型的结构金属间化合物如Ti-Al、Ni-Al、Nb-Si有着优异的高温强度和较低的密度,非常适合应用于航空航天器的高温结构件中。但此类材料也存在室温断裂韧性较低、高温抗氧化性能差等问题,使其在应用上受到限制,也成为该领域研究的难点与重点。本文着重介绍近年来我国Ti-Al、Ni-Al、Nb-Si系结构金属间化合物基合金在高温强化、增韧、抗氧化、制备技术等方面的研究进展与应用现状。

关键词 金属间化合物耐高温性能力学性能合金化设计抗氧化性    
Abstract

Intermetallics is composed of two or more metals or of a metal and a nonmetal. The coexistence of covalent and metal bond makes the intermetallic compound have long-term ordered superlattice structure, which greatly reduces dislocation mobility at high temperature, thus exhibiting good high-temperature strength. Typical structural intermetallics such as Ti-Al, Ni-Al and Nb-Si, have the advantages of excellent high-temperature strength and low density, which are very suitable for high-temperature structural parts of aerospace. However, the application of such materials is limited by low fracture toughness at room temperature and poor oxidation resistance at high temperature, which attracts more and more attentions and brings challenges in this field. In this paper, the research and application status in high-temperature strengthening, toughening, oxidation resistance and preparation technology of Ti-Al, Ni-Al, Nb-Si intermetallics-based alloys are introduced.

Key wordsintermetallics    high-temperature resistance    mechanical property    alloying design    oxidation resistance
收稿日期: 2019-05-07     
ZTFLH:  TG113.1  
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(51671015、51771007);国家科技重大专项项目(2017-VI-0011-0083、2017-VI-0012-0084)
通讯作者: 宫声凯     E-mail: gongsk@buaa.edu.cn
Corresponding author: Shengkai GONG     E-mail: gongsk@buaa.edu.cn
作者简介: 宫声凯,男,1956年生,教授,博士

引用本文:

宫声凯, 尚勇, 张继, 郭喜平, 林均品, 赵希宏. 我国典型金属间化合物基高温结构材料的研究进展与应用[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1067-1076.
GONG Shengkai, SHANG Yong, ZHANG Ji, GUO Xiping, LIN Junpin, ZHAO Xihong. Application and Research of Typical Intermetallics-Based High Temperature Structural Materials in China. Acta Metall Sin, 2019, 55(9): 1067-1076.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00148      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2019/V55/I9/1067

图1  通过控制轧制温度获得的高铌TiAl合金双态组织及近片层组织
图2  铸造高铌TiAl合金的XRD谱及Larson-Miller蠕变曲线对比
图3  8镦8拔和5镦5拔Ti-22Al-25Nb合金棒材显微组织(直径300 mm)
图4  IC21合金的微观组织
图5  IC21合金的1100 ℃循环氧化增重曲线及[111]取向的1100 ℃、137 MPa蠕变曲线
ElementConstituent phaseOxidation resistanceMechanical property
Ti, Hf, ZrPromoting theImproving the oxidationHf and Zr enhance the fracture toughness and high
formation ofresistancetemperature strength, and Ti also enhances the fracture
γ-Nb5Si3toughness, but excessive Ti content degrades the high-
temperature creep resistance of the alloys
Mo, W, AlImproving theW and Al improve theMo enhances the fracture toughness and high temperature
stability of β-Nb5Si3oxidation resistance,strength; W improves the high temperature strength; Al
while Mo degrades ithas negative impact on mechanical properties
CrPromoting theImproving the oxidationDeteriorating the fracture toughness of the alloys
formation ofresistance
Cr2Nb
Rare earth-Improving the oxidationImproving the fracture toughness of the alloys
resistance
表1  合金化元素对Nb-Si基合金相组成和性能的影响[44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58]
图6  Nb-15Si-22Ti-5Cr-3Al-3Hf合金在2050 ℃和200 μm/s抽拉速率下有坩埚整体定向凝固纵截面和横截面的微观组织
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