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Acta Metall Sin  2020, Vol. 56 Issue (8): 1103-1112    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00410
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Influence of Manufacturing Parameters on the Properties of Electron Beam Melted Ti-Ni Alloy
REN Dechun1,2, ZHANG Huibo1, ZHAO Xiaodong3, WANG Fuyu4, HOU Wentao1, WANG Shaogang1, LI Shujun1, JIN Wei1(), YANG Rui1
1 Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
2 School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Shenyang 110016, China
3 Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
4 AVIC Shenyang Aircraft Design and Research Institute, Shenyang 110035, China
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Electron beam melting (EBM) is one of the additive manufacturing technologies which can be used to fabricate the complex structure and shape samples. Until now, there are few literatures published about the properties of Ti-Ni samples produced by EBM. In this work, the influence of two important manufacturing parameters of focus offset (FO) and speed function (SF) on the density, phase content and transformation behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated for the equiatomic Ti-Ni shape memory alloy fabricated by EBM used DSC, XRD, SEM, TEM and electronic universal testing machine. The results showed that all the Ti-Ni samples had a high relative density beyond than 97% for fabricated by different combinations of FO and SF in the selected range. The corresponding phase transformation temperatures for all the Ti-Ni samples fabricated by EBM were higher than the pre-alloyed Ti-Ni powder, due to the effect of evaporation of Ni element higher than that of the formation of Ni-rich Ti2Ni phase during the quickly melting and solidification process. On the other hand, the EBM manufacturing parameters of FO and SF had limited influence on the phase contents, phase transformation temperatures and Vickers hardness. Due to the feature of the EBM fabricating method, the different types of defects would be introduced in the Ti-Ni solid samples. Though all the samples had similar high relative density, the performance of the compression behavior were shown great difference, and the crack defect had the larger effect than the gas and lack-of fusion porosities on the compression fracture stress and strain.

Key words:  electron beam melting      Ti-Ni alloy      manufacturing parameter      microstructure      compression property     
Received:  29 November 2019     
ZTFLH:  TG146.23  
Fund: Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA22010103)
Corresponding Authors:  JIN Wei     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

REN Dechun, ZHANG Huibo, ZHAO Xiaodong, WANG Fuyu, HOU Wentao, WANG Shaogang, LI Shujun, JIN Wei, YANG Rui. Influence of Manufacturing Parameters on the Properties of Electron Beam Melted Ti-Ni Alloy. Acta Metall Sin, 2020, 56(8): 1103-1112.

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SampleSF / (mm·s-1)FO / mA
Table 1  Electron beam melting (EBM) parameters for fabrication Ti-Ni alloy
Fig.1  SEM image of the pre-alloyed Ti-Ni powder used for EBM
Fig.2  Measured densities and relative densities of EBMed Ti-Ni alloy samples fabricated with different manufacturing parameters
Fig.3  XRD spectra of the pre-alloyed Ti-Ni powder and EBMed Ti-Ni alloy samples fabricated with different manufacturing parameters
Fig.4  DSC curves of pre-alloyed Ti-Ni powder and EBMed Ti-Ni alloy samples fabricated with different manufacturing parameters
Table 2  Phase transformation temperatures of pre-alloyed Ti-Ni powder and EBMed Ti-Ni alloy samples obtained from DSC curves
Fig.5  Compression stress-strain curves for EBMed Ti-Ni alloy samples fabricated with different manufacturing parameters at room temperature
Fig.6  Vickers hardnesses of EBMed Ti-Ni alloy samples with different manufacturing parameters (a) and sample S5 along the building direction plane and building plane on a straight testing line that spans the entire for ten different positions (b)
Fig.7  Morphologies after compression testing (a, d, g), SEM images for whole fracture surface (b, e, h) and locally magnified SEM images for fracture surface (c, f, i) for EBMed Ti-Ni alloy samples S1 (a~c), S5 (d~f) and S7 (g~i)
Fig.8  SEM images of top surface (a), low (b) and high (c) magnified microstructures of top surface for building plane, SEM images of side surface (d), low (e) and high (f) magnified microstructures of side surface for building direction plane and SEM image before corrosion for building direction plane (g) for EBMed Ti-Ni alloy sample S5, and EDS results for positions 1~4 in Fig.8g (h, i)
Fig.9  TEM image of EBMed Ti-Ni alloy sample S5 (a) and the corresponding SAED patterns of positions 1 (b) and 2 (c) in Fig.9a
Fig.10  Images of the defect distributions (a, d, g) and views of top surface (b, e, h), and defect size distributions (c, f, i) in the EBMed Ti-Ni alloy samples S1 (a~c), S5 (d~f) and S7 (g~i) from micro-CT
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