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Acta Metall Sin  2020, Vol. 56 Issue (4): 583-600    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00373
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New Study and Development on Electromagnetic Field Technology in Metallurgical Processes
REN Zhongming1,2(),LEI Zuosheng1,2,LI Chuanjun1,2,XUAN Weidong1,2,ZHONG Yunbo1,2,LI Xi1,2
1.State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
2.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
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Electromagnetic metallurgy technology is an essential method of high quality steel production. This article reviews the development of electromagnetic metallurgy technology in recent years, focusing on the whole process of continuous casting, including electromagnetic purification of steel in tundish, nozzle flow control, mould electromagnetic stirring and electromagnetic brake, flow field control via magnetic field, electromagnetic soft contact electromagnetic continuous casting, electromagnetic field regulation of solidification structure, solid phase transformation and microstructure control under electromagnetic field, the mechanism of electromagnetic field action is explained, the principle and characteristics of electromagnetic field technology are analyzed, and the concept of multi-mode magnetic field is proposed in the field of flow field control by using electromagnetic field to meet the requirements of complex states in high quality steel continuous casting. In the field of static magnetic field control solidification structure, a new principle of applying high thermal electromagnetic force is proposed, and it is presented that the development of electromagnetic metallurgy technology needs to combine the artificial intelligence of big data to play a better role.

Key words:  electromagnetic field      continuous casting      purification      solidification      electromagnetic soft contact      electromagnetic stirring      electromagnetic brake     
Received:  04 November 2019     
ZTFLH:  TF19  
Fund: National Natural Science Foundation of China(51690162);National Natural Science Foundation of China(51604172);National Science and Technology Major Project(2017-Ⅶ-0008-0102)
Corresponding Authors:  Zhongming REN     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

REN Zhongming,LEI Zuosheng,LI Chuanjun,XUAN Weidong,ZHONG Yunbo,LI Xi. New Study and Development on Electromagnetic Field Technology in Metallurgical Processes. Acta Metall Sin, 2020, 56(4): 583-600.

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Fig.1  Schematic of the forces on the particle in the melt with imposing electromagnetic force[3] (EMF—electromagnetic force, B—magnetic induction, J—current density)
Fig.2  The schematic diagram of removing the inclusions in the liquid metal under the electromagnetic force[3]
Fig.3  Schematic drawing of the electromagnetic furification of liquid steel in the tundish
Fig.4  Influence of the rotation rate on the station time of liquid steel in the tundish
Fig.5  The reduction of oxygen (T[O]) in the liquid steel with the various electric currents
Fig.6  The schematic of magnetici field enhanced electroslug remelting[8]

Magnetic flux mT

Influence of decreasing the interface heat transferInfluence of inducing heat in moldInfluence of inducing heat in metal

Heat transfer coefficient

103 m2·K

Starting point of solidification




106 J·m-3

Starting point of solidification





Starting point of solidification


Table 1  The calculated result of influence of inducing heat and decreasing the interface heat transfer due to the electromagnetic field on the position of the starting point of solidification[23]
Fig.7  Schematic of experimental apparatus of continuous casting under high frequency amplitude-modulated magnetic field (AMMF)
Fig.8  Influence of effect of electromagnetic brake (EMBR) on velocity distribution in mold[39]Color online(a) without EMBR (b) with EMBR
Fig.9  Research process of electromagnetic controlling of flow in continuous casting mold (SEN—submerged entry nozzle, EMS—electromagnetic stirring)Color online(a) physical experience (b) mathematical simulation (c) flow field evaluation
Fig.10  Schematics of the functions of the experimental equipments for continuous casting (CC) of steelColor online
Fig.11  The segregation of carbon in bearing steel billet with electromagnetic (EM) stirring in mold during continuous casting (CC)Color online
Fig.12  The DTA results of pure Al (a) and Bi (b) at the cooling rate of -5 ℃/min in various magnetic fields, respectively[52,53] (Tn—nucleation temperature)Color online
Fig.13  The microstructures of the Ni-based superalloy at the seed melt-back zone[54]Color online(a, c) longitudinal microstructures near melt-back interface without and with an 8 T magnetic field, respectively(b, d) corresponding EBSD orientation image maps and inverse pole figures of regions A and B, respectively
Fig.14  The microstructures of the Ni-based superalloy at the cross-section change region of the specimen[55]Color online(a, c) longitudinal microstructures near cross-section change regions without and with a 12 T magnetic field, respectively(b, d) the corresponding EBSD orientation image maps and inverse pole figures of regions A and B, respectively
Fig.15  Cr content for radial profiles in the solid at 15 mm from the solid/liquid interface fabricated under the temperature gradient of 104 K/cm and at the pulling rate of 5 μm/s without and with the 4 T longitudinal static magnetic field[74]Color online
Fig.16  CET map for the GCr15 bearing steel during directional solidification without and with the longitudinal static magnetic field (CET—columnar to equiaxed transition)
Fig.17  The volumn fraction (VF) of the shrinkage porosity near the final stage of solidification of GCr18Mo steel specimen at different temperature gradient (G) (a) and growth speed (V) (b) without and with 4 T axial static magnetic field (ASMF)[76]Color online
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