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Acta Metall Sin  2018, Vol. 54 Issue (11): 1597-1617    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00392
Materials and Processes Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Alloys: A Review
Zongyi MA1(), Qiao SHANG1,2, Dingrui NI1, Bolv XIAO1
1 Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
2 School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Shenyang 110016, China
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Abstract  

In recent years, the increasing application demand for Mg alloys in automobile, rail transport, aviation and aerospace industries brings about the growing prominence of seeking reliable techniques to join Mg alloys. As a solid state welding method, friction stir welding (FSW) exhibits unique advantages in joining Mg alloys, and thus arouses widespread research interest. This paper emphatically reviewed the research status of conventional friction stir butt-welding of Mg alloys, and highlighted the welding process, microstructure evolution, texture characteristics, mechanical behavior and their interaction mechanisms. It was indicated that the texture plays a vital role in FSW joint performance of wrought Mg alloys, which is quite different from that in the FSW Al alloy joints. The specific strong texture formed in the weld is the main factor that gives rise to the impediment to achieving equal-strength joints to base materials. At the same time, some focuses like the weldability and the factors that influence joint performance in other types of FSW like lap welding, spot welding and double-sided welding; the weldability, interface bonding mechanism, joint performance and its affecting factors and optimization methods in dissimilar FSW between Mg alloys and other materials like Mg alloys of other grades, Al alloys and steels, were summarized and discussed. Finally, the future research and development directions in FSW of Mg alloys were prospected.

Key words:  Mg alloy      friction stir welding      dissimilar welding      microstructure evolution      joint performance     
Received:  20 August 2018     
ZTFLH:  TG457  
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51331008)

Cite this article: 

Zongyi MA, Qiao SHANG, Dingrui NI, Bolv XIAO. Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Alloys: A Review. Acta Metall Sin, 2018, 54(11): 1597-1617.

URL: 

https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00392     OR     https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/Y2018/V54/I11/1597

Fig.1  Schematic illustration of friction stir welding (FSW)[2]
Fig.2  Macroscopic image of friction stir welded joint of extruded AZ31 alloy (NZ—nugget zone, TMAZ—thermomechanically affected zone, HAZ—heat affected zone, BM—base material)[3]
Fig.3  Optical micrographs of friction stir welded joint of extruded AZ31 alloy[3]
(a) NZ/TMAZ interface on retreating side (RS) (b) NZ center
(c) NZ/TMAZ interface on advancing side (AS)
Fig.4  Texture distribution in stir zone of friction stir welded AZ31 joint (ND—plate normal direction, WD—welding direction, TD—transverse direction)[29]
Fig.5  Schematic illustration of shear layer formation induced by motion of friction stir welding tool (ω—tool rotational rate, ν—tool traverse speed)[30]
Fig.6  Gradual texture variation in TMAZ when approaching NZ boundary in friction stir welded joint of extruded AZ31[3]
No. BM Thickness of BM / mm YS/UTS of BM MPa YS/UTS of joint
MPa
Joint efficiency
%
Ref.
1 Hot-rolled AZ31 2 155/255 80~105/160~190 63~75 [8]
2 Extruded AZ31 6.4 92~158/243 70~96/211~224 87~92 [3]
3 AZ31B-H24 2 215/290 130~180/210~240 72~82 [25]
4 AZ31B-O 6.5 150/230 -/180 78 [26]
5 Hot-rolled AZ31 6 62~135/302~334 (true stress) 70~88/262~267
(true stress)
78~88 [36]
6 Hot-rolled AZ31 6.3 153/250 105/203~215 81~86 [50]
7 AZ31-H24 4 281/321 100~114/185~211 58~66 [51]
8 AZ31 9 122/284 82~105/185~232 65~82 [52]
9 AZ31 2 and 3.2 -/250~270 -/185~230 69~92 [53]
10 AZ31 4 -/275 -/190~255 69~93 [54]
11 AZ31B-H24 4.95 208/309 100~130/170~200 55~65 [42]
12 AZ31B-H24 2 -/286 150~180/200~220 69~78 [55]
13 AZ31-H24 3.175 228/308 95~115/200~226 66~75 [56]
14 Extruded AZ31B 4 -/305 -/175~293 57~96 [57]
15 Hot-rolled AZ31 2 153/250 92~117/216~238 86~95 [58]
16 AZ61 6.3 170/300 110/280 93 [66]
17 Extruded AZ61A 6 217/271 110~177/138~224 51~83 [67]
18 AZ61 2.5 -/320 -/300 94 [68]
19 Extruded AZ61 5 202/289 169~181/229~296 79~100 [69]
20 Extruded AZ80 6 179/330 159~167/274~305 83~92 [16]
21 Extruded AZ80 6.3 246/356 165~230/234~312 65~87 [70]
22 Extruded ZK60 8 165/290 125/250 86 [22]
23 Forged Mg-Zn-Y-Zr 6 120/275 110/260 94 [23]
24 Hot-extruded Mg-5Al-3Sn 2.8 217/297 123~166/245~259 82~87 [71]
25 Hot-extruded Mg-5Al-1Sn 3 -/285 -/223~258 78~91 [72]
26 Hot-rolled ZM21 5, 10 and 25 120/227 102~106/173~198 76~87 [73]
27 Rolled NZ20K 2 -/210 -/191 91 [74]
Table 1  Summary of tensile properties of FSW joints of wrought Mg alloys[3,8,16,22,23,25,26,36,42,50~58,66~74]
Fig.7  Comparison of macroscopic surface morphology (a) and distribution area of extension twins (b) at final stage of tensile deformation of friction stir welded AZ31 joint (The contour of twinning area is highlighted with dashed white lines. The optical microstructure of twinning area is obtained from the region (1) marked with green wireframe in Fig.7b)[29]
Fig.8  Microtextures (parent grain orientations+twin orientations) at different sub-regions in SZ of friction stir welded AZ31 joint at final stage of tensile deformation[29]
Fig.9  The distribution of local tensile strains on side surface of friction stir welded AZ31 joint at different stress levels[29]
Fig.10  Characterization of contraction twinning in NZ center of friction stir welded AZ31 joint at final stage of tensile deformation[3]
(a) macroscopic image of horizontal cross-section (b) distribution area
(c) optical microstructure of the region with needle-like contraction twins (d) Kikuchi band contrast
(e) basal pole figure showing orientation relationship expected for double {1011}-{1012} twin boundaries (38°<1120> ±5°)
Fig.11  TEM images showing interfacial microstructures of friction stir spot welded AZ31 joint with addition of Zn interlayers[105]
(a) adjacent to Mg side (b) next to eutectoid structure
(c) TEM microstructure at center of brazed zone (d) its selected area electron diffraction pattern
Fig.12  Macroscopic image of bobbin-tool friction stir welded joint of extruded AZ31 alloy
Fig.13  TEM interface microstructure of friction stir lap welded joint of AZ31 Mg alloy and steel with Al-containing Zn coating (a), and EDS results obtained from regions B (b), C (c), D (d) and E (e) in Fig.13a[140]
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