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Acta Metall Sin  2018, Vol. 54 Issue (6): 844-850    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00402
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Effect of Superheated Temperature and Cooling Rate on the Solidification of Undercooled Ti Melt
Dandan FAN, Junfeng XU, Yanan ZHONG, Zengyun JIAN()
School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi'an Technological University, Xi'an 710021, China
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Abstract  

Undercooling is an important parameter to characterize the process of solidification and the physical properties of the melt. However, the traditional experimental conditions do not provide mature technical conditions and experimental platforms for the study of this subject. Molecular dynamics simulation method can not only study the experimental process and the organization structure, but also break through the limited conditions of the laboratory, and provide advanced prediction for scientific research. In order to study the influences of superheated temperature and cooling rate on the undercooling of the homogeneous nucleation and the solidified structure, the solidification of undercooled Ti melt was studied by molecular dynamics simulation in this work; and the solidified structure was then analyzed by the radial analysis, the H-A key type analysis and the largest groups of cluster analysis. The results show that, the nucleation undercooling of Ti melt increases with the rise of superheated temperature. In the undercooling vs temperature curve there are two inflection points at 2100 K (T1) and 2490 K (T2), which correspond to the breaking-start temperature and breaking-end temperature for bond pair of nucleation cluster. In this temperature range, the number of nucleation clusters decreases with rise of temperature. When the superheated temperature is higher than T2, the nucleation undercooling approaches a constant. On the other hand, the nucleation undercooling of Ti melt increases with the accelerate of cooling rate until an anomalous structure is formed, and in the numbers of the bonds of the structure vs different cooling rate curves, the number of 1541, 1551 and 1431 bond types gradually adds with cooling rate going up. In addition, when the cooling rate is less than 1.0×1011 K/s, the hcp and bcc inlaid crystalline structures are obtained after the solidification of Ti melt. When the cooling rate is greater than or equal to 1.0×1013 K/s, two kinds of crystalline structure are reduced, and the microstructures are mainly amorphous. When the cooling rate ranges between 1.0×1011 K/s and 1.0×1013 K/s, its structure is a mixture of crystalline and amorphous. From the results of radial distribution, H-A bond type and atomic cluster analysis, it was found that the critical cooling rate for amorphous structure is determined as 1.0×1013 K/s.

Key words:  undercooling      solidification      homogeneous nucleation      molecular dynamics     
Received:  25 September 2017     
ZTFLH:  TG113.12  
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51671151) and Science and Technology Program of Shaanxi Province (No.2016KJXX-87)

Cite this article: 

Dandan FAN, Junfeng XU, Yanan ZHONG, Zengyun JIAN. Effect of Superheated Temperature and Cooling Rate on the Solidification of Undercooled Ti Melt. Acta Metall Sin, 2018, 54(6): 844-850.

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https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00402     OR     https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/Y2018/V54/I6/844

Fig.1  Melting point simulated by embedded atom method (EAM) potential function
Ts Tc ΔT
2006 917 1023
2036 910 1030
2100 904 1036
2250 899 1041
2320 896 1044
2350 894 1046
2400 888 1052
2450 879 1061
2490 874 1066
2540 874 1066
2600 874 1066
Table 1  Crystallization temperature Tc and undercooling ΔT of melt Ti from cooling under different Ts (K)
Fig.2  Potential energies of Ti system vs temperature under different superheated temperatures Ts
Fig.3  ΔT as a function of Ts for Ti melt
Fig.4  The potential energy vs temperature of the melt Ti under different cooling rates Rc
Fig.5  ΔT-lgRc curve of Ti melt
Fig.6  Radial distribution function curve of Ti solidified under different Rc
Fig.7  Numbers of the bonds in the structure of metal Ti solidified under different Rc
Rc / (Ks-1) Tc / K ΔT / K
1.0×109.8 913.37 1026.63
1.0×1010 907.26 1032.74
1.0×1010.5 882.83 1057.17
1.0×1011 876.79 1063.21
1.0×1011.5 857.17 1082.83
1.0×1012 799.76 1140.24
Table 2  Tc and ΔT of the melt Ti under different Rc
Rc / (Ks-1) Nc Nbcc Nfcc Nhcp
1.0×109.8 22300 1852 0 20448
1.0×1010 17276 8349 0 8927
1.0×1010.5 17283 11770 0 5513
1.0×1011 13697 8298 0 5399
1.0×1011.5 21586 6781 0 14805
1.0×1012 18743 5384 0 12909
1.0×1012.5 6315 3150 0 3165
1.0×1013 579 162 0 417
1.0×1013.5 216 58 0 158
1.0×1014 96 17 0 79
1.0×1014.5 43 6 0 37
1.0×1015 35 4 0 31
1.0×1015.5 4 1 0 3
1.0×1016 2 1 0 1
Table 3  Total number of atoms in the final configuration and crystalline clusters after solidification under different Rc
Fig.8  Microstructures of Ti melt after solidification under Rc=1.0×109.8 K/s (a), Rc=1.0×1010 K/s (b), Rc=1.0×1010.5 K/s (c), Rc=1.0×1011 K/s (d), Rc=1.0×1011.5 K/s (e), Rc=1.0×1012 K/s (f), Rc=1.0×1012.5 K/s (g), Rc=1.0×1013 K/s (h), Rc=1.0×1013.5 K/s (i), Rc=1.0×1014 K/s (j), Rc=1.0×1014.5 K/s (k) and Rc=1.0×1015 K/s (l) (Yellow for bcc structure, purple for hcp structure, the blank for amorphous. Insets show the enlarged views)
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