Please wait a minute...
Acta Metall Sin  2017, Vol. 53 Issue (9): 1075-1090    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00047
Orginal Article Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Cryogenic Processing High-Strength 7050 Aluminum Alloy and Controlling of the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties
Longgang HOU1(), Mingli LIU1, Xindong WANG2, Linzhong ZHUANG1, Jishan ZHANG1
1 State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2 School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
Download:  HTML  PDF(13783KB) 
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  

The high strength or flow stress as well as low plastic deformability of 7000 series Al alloys makes it difficult to improve their microstructures and mechanical properties by cold processing, and many advanced alloying methods and processing technologies are continually developed for higher mechanical properties and acceptable elongation. In this work, the cryogenic deformation (rolling) was applied to process high-strength 7050 Al alloys, and its effects on the microstructures and mechanical properties were studied. The results showed that after the pre-cooling with liquid nitrogen, the quenched 7050 Al alloy can obtain much higher rolling reduction, similar to that under warm or hot rolling, and a great number of substructures and high-density dislocations were formed which greatly increased the strength. The higher cryogenic deformability would be mainly related with the higher work-hardening ability at low temperature, while the strength enhancement would be largely attributed to the solution strengthening and dislocation strengthening. The cryogenic deformation can obviously stimulate the ageing process of the quenched 7050 Al alloy, but the direct ageing of the cryogenic-rolling 7050 Al alloy can assure higher strength and acceptable elongation, which would be greatly attributed to the precipitation strengthening and dislocation strengthening, while the recovery and ageing-induced precipitates help improving the tensile elongation. During room-temperature rolling, the formation of GP zones and η′ phases caused by the heats transformed from the deformation as well as their interaction with dislocations leads to the appearance of amounts of shear bands (instability areas), which will easily cause the cracking or edge-cracking of the rolling sheets. However, the cryogenic rolling with distinctly impeding the solute diffusion can result in the suppression of precipitation of the strengthening phases so as to decrease the occurrence of the shear instability areas, and uniform and stable plastic deformation or good work-hardening as well as high-quality rolling sheets are obtained. The excellent plastic deformability of high-strength Al alloys at cryogenic temperatures could be suggested as an effective way to improve the processing of high-strength Al alloys.

Key words:  high-strength Al alloy      cryogenic deformation      microstructure      mechanical property      work-hardening     
Received:  15 February 2017     
ZTFLH:  TG146.2  
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51401016), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No.FRF-TP-12-137A), Beijing Laboratory of Metallic Materials and Processing for Modern Transportation, and Funds from State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metals and Materials (No.2011Z-05)

Cite this article: 

Longgang HOU, Mingli LIU, Xindong WANG, Linzhong ZHUANG, Jishan ZHANG. Cryogenic Processing High-Strength 7050 Aluminum Alloy and Controlling of the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties. Acta Metall Sin, 2017, 53(9): 1075-1090.

URL: 

https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00047     OR     https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/Y2017/V53/I9/1075

Fig.1  Room-temperature rolling (RTR) and liquid nitrogen rolling (LN2R) sheets of the quenched 7050 Al alloy (The initial thickness are 15 and 20 mm, respectively, with 10%~15% reduction per pass; CRTR——continued room-temperature rolling; IRTR——interval room-temperature rolling)
Fig.2  Microstructures of the RTR and LN2R 7050 Al alloys

(a) as-quenched (b) 40%RTR (c) 56%RTR (d) 63%RTR (e) 76%LN2R (f, g) 91%LN2R with different magnifications

Fig.3  Dislocation cells and substructures in 70% (a, b) and 91% (c, d) LN2R 7050 Al alloys, and subgrains in the as-quenched alloy (e) (Figs.3b and d are the enlarged images of Figs.3a and c, respectively)
Fig.4  TEM images of microstructures of 7050 Al alloy over-aged at 350 ℃ for 1 h after 60%RTR (a~c), 77%RTR (d~f) and 66%LN2R (g~j) deformations

(a) elongated microstructures (b, c) enlarged images of Fig.4a

(d) laminar deformation microstructures (e) subgrains (f) dislocation cells

(g) substructures or subgrains within the micro shear band (h) sharp-shaped equiaxed subgrains

(i) local deformed microstructures with subgrains and elongated subgrains (containing precipitates)

(j) enlarged equiaxed subgrains with precipitates in the triple junction

Rolling process Heat treatment σy / MPa σb / MPa δ / %
Original T6 (120 ℃, 24 h) 507 565 11.6
80% hot rolling[30] T6 518 600 16.8
80%LN2R No 571 624 7.0
(10% per pass)
82.5%LN2R No About 625 676~682 8.6~9.4
(20% per pass)
91%LN2R
(10% per pass)
No 650 690 About 3.0
80 ℃, 24 h 578~583 639 11.5~13.6
80 ℃, 48 h 589 642 9.0
80 ℃, 72 h 591 650 12.0
100 ℃, 24 h 601 636 8.2
120 ℃, 24 h 570~573 601~606 5.3~8
475 ℃, 0.5 h+T6 498 590 15.3
PA 602~605 650~653 6.6~7.8
7050 T7651 455 524 8.0
Table 1  Room-temperature tensile properties of the 7050 Al alloy sheets at different states
Fig.5  Room-temperature tensile curves of the LN2R 7050 Al alloys under different states (the 82.5%LN2R curve is for the sheet with 82.5%LN2R reduction (20% reduction per pass), the 91%LN2R curve is for the sheet with 91%LN2R reduction (10% reduction per pass), other curves are for the aged 91%LN2R sheets
Fig.6  Microstructure of the 63%RTR 7050 Al alloy (The arrows show the shear bands or micro shear areas)
Fig.7  DSC curves of the quenched (a) and 91%LN2R (b~g) 7050 Al alloys without ageing (b) and under the ageing states of 80 ℃, 24 h (c), 80 ℃, 48 h (d), 80 ℃, 72 h (e), 100 ℃, 24 h (f) and 120 ℃, 24 h (g)
Fig.8  TEM (a~c) and HRTEM (d) images of the 91%LN2R 7050 Al alloy after ageing at 80 ℃ for 24 h (a) and 48 h (b~d) (Fig.8c is the local magnification of the area in Fig.8b, and the arrows in Fig.8c show the precipitates)
Fig.9  TEM (a, b, e, h) and HRTEM (c, d, f, i) images of the 91%LN2R 7050 Al alloy after different ageing treatments (air furnace), and electron diffraction pattern of Fig.9b (<110>Al) (g) (Circles in Fig.9a indicate some obvious precipitates along subgrain boundaries or within grains; the two arrows in Fig.9g indicate the diffraction patterns at 1/3{220}Al and 2/3{220}Al positions)

(a~d) 100 ℃, 24 h (e~g) 120 ℃, 24 h (h, i) 50 ℃, 5 h+80 ℃, 9 h

Fig.10  XRD spectra of the quenched 7050 Al alloy after RTR (a) and 91%LN2R deformation with ageing treatments (b) (S phase in Fig.10b is the undissolved S phase)
Fig.11  Curves of stress and stress reduction of the quenched 7050 Al alloy at different temperatures and strain rates (The displacement data during the compression were recorded by the testing system without using strain gauge and the strains in Figs.11a and b were for reference; RT—room temperature, LN2—liquid nitrogen, RTC—room-temperature compression)

(a) curves of compressive true stress-strain (The arrows show the starting points of obvious serrated flow)

(b) enlarged serrated flow of RT curves in Fig.11a (0.005 s-1, 213 K)

(c) variations of the stress reduction or increment (Δσ) with strains under RT compression

(d) variation of the average stress reduction or increment (Δσave.) with strain rates

[1] Prangnell P B, Bowen J R, Berta M, et al. Stability of ultra-fine 'grain structures' produced by severe deformation [J]. Mater. Sci. Forum, 2004, 467-470: 1261
[2] Zhang H W, Huang X, Pippan R, et al.Thermal behavior of Ni (99.967% and 99.5% purity) deformed to an ultra-high strain by high pressure torsion[J]. Acta Mater., 2010, 58: 1698
[3] Chandler H D, Bee J V.Cyclic strain induced precipitation in a solution treated aluminium alloy[J]. Acta Metall., 1987, 35: 2503
[4] Sha G, Wang Y B, Liao X Z, et al.Influence of equal-channel angular pressing on precipitation in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy[J]. Acta Mater., 2009, 57: 3123
[5] Engler O, Tome C N, Huh M Y.A study of through-thickness texture gradients in rolled sheets[J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2000, 31A: 2299
[6] Boldetti C, Pinna C, Howard I C, et al.Measurement of deformation gradients in hot rolling of AA3004[J]. Exp. Mech., 2005, 45: 517
[7] Humphreys F J, Prangnell P B, Bowen J R, et al.Developing stable fine-grain microstructures by large strain deformation[J]. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., 1999, 357A: 1663
[8] Pippan R, Scheriau S, Taylor A, et al.Saturation of fragmentation during severe plastic deformation[J]. Annu. Rev. Mater. Res., 2010, 40: 319
[9] Furui M, Kawakami T, Saji S, et al.Stored energy and its release behavior during recovery and recrystallization processes for aluminum alloys rolled at cryogenic temperature[J]. J. Jpn. Inst. Light Met., 2002, 52(8): 339
[10] Roumina R, Sinclair C W.Deformation geometry and through-thickness strain gradients in asymmetric rolling[J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2008, 39A: 2495
[11] Li S Y, Sun F W, Li H.Observation and modeling of the through-thickness texture gradient in commercial-purity aluminum sheets processed by accumulative roll-bonding[J]. Acta Mater., 2010, 58: 1317
[12] Wigley D A.Mechanical Properties of Materials at Low Temperatures [M]. New York-London: Plenum Press, 1971: 16
[13] Khan A S, Meredith C S.Thermo-mechanical response of Al 6061 with and without equal channel angular pressing (ECAP)[J]. Int. J. Plast., 2010, 26: 189
[14] Schneider R, Heine B, Grant R J.Mechanical behaviour of commercial aluminium wrought alloys at low temperatures [A]. Light Metal Alloys Applications[C]. Rijeka: InTech, 2014: 61
[15] Puchi-Cabrera E S, Staia M H, Ochoa-Pérez E, et al. Flow stress and ductility of AA7075-T6 aluminum alloy at low deformation temperatures[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2011, A528: 895
[16] Senkov O N, Bhat R B, Senkova S V.High strength aluminum alloys for cryogenic applications [A]. Metallic Materials with High Structural Efficiency. NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry[C]. Netherlands: Springer, 2004: 151
[17] Kaufman J G.Properties of Aluminum Alloys: Tensile, Creep, and Fatigue Data at High and Low Temperatures[M]. Materials Park: ASM International, 1999: 1
[18] Park J H, Park K T, Lee Y S, et al.Comparison of compressive deformation of ultrafine-grained 5083 Al alloy at 77 and 298 K[J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2005, 36A: 1365
[19] Saimoto S, Lloyd D J.A new analysis of yielding and work hardening in AA1100 and AA5754 at low temperatures[J]. Acta Mater., 2012, 60: 6352
[20] Zhou F, Nutt S R, Bampton C C, et al.Nanostructure in an Al-Mg-Sc alloy processed by low-energy ball milling at cryogenic temperature[J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2003, 34A: 1985
[21] Yildiz Y, Nalbant M.A review of cryogenic cooling in machining processes[J]. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact., 2008, 48: 947
[22] Rao P N, Singh D, Jayaganthan R.Mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of Al 6061 alloy processed by multidirectional forging at liquid nitrogen temperature[J]. Mater. Des., 2014, 56: 97
[23] Lee Y B, Shin D H, Park K T, et al.Effect of annealing temperature on microstructures and mechanical properties of a 5083 Al alloy deformed at cryogenic temperature[J]. Scr. Mater., 2004, 51: 355
[24] Shanmugasundaram T, Murty B S, Sarma V S.Development of ultrafine grained high strength Al-Cu alloy by cryorolling[J]. Scr. Mater., 2006, 54: 2013
[25] Zhao Y H, Liao X Z, Cheng S, et al.Simultaneously increasing the ductility and strength of nanostructured alloys[J]. Adv. Mater., 2006, 18: 2280
[26] Panigrahi S K, Jayaganthan R.A study on the combined treatment of cryorolling, short-annealing, and aging for the development of ultrafine-grained Al 6063 alloy with enhanced strength and ductility[J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2010, 41A: 2675
[27] Tsujiuchi Y, Kita K, Watanabe C, et al.Enhancement in strength of a Cu-1.4 mass%Ni-0.25 mass%P-0.1 mass%Zr alloy by cryo-rolling and aging[J]. J. Jpn. Inst. Met., 2013, 77(2): 55
[28] Fritsch S, Hunger S, Scholze M, et al.Optimisation of thermo mechanical treatments using cryogenic rolling and aging of the high strength aluminium alloy AlZn5.5MgCu (AA7075)[J]. Materialwiss. Werkstofftech., 2011, 42: 573
[29] Weiss M, Taylor A S, Hodgson P D, et al.Strength and biaxial formability of cryo-rolled 2024 aluminium subject to concurrent recovery and precipitation[J]. Acta Mater., 2013, 61: 5278
[30] Lang Y J.Grain refinement of 7050 aluminum alloy and its mechanical behavior by hot deformation based on strain-induced precipitation [D]. Beijing: University of Science and Technology Beijing, 2012(郎玉婧. 基于应变诱导析出的热变形细化7050铝合金及其力学行为 [D]. 北京: 北京科技大学, 2012)
[31] Hodowany J.On the conversion of plastic work into heat [D]. California: California Institute of Technology, 1997
[32] Kapoor R, Nemat-Nasser S.Determination of temperature rise during high strain rate deformation[J]. Mech. Mater., 1998, 27: 1
[33] Yu H L, Tieu A K, Lu C, et al.Mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si alloy sheets produced using asymmetric cryorolling and ageing treatment[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2013, A568: 212
[34] Di Russo E, Conserva M, Buratti M, et al.A new thermo-mechanical procedure for improving the ductility and toughness of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys in the transverse directions[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 1974, 14: 23
[35] Engler O, Kong X W, Yang P.Influence of particle stimulated nucleation on the recrystallization textures in cold deformed Al-alloys Part I——Experimental observations[J]. Scr. Mater., 1997, 37: 1665
[36] De Siqueira R P, Sandim H R Z, Raabe D. Particle stimulated nucleation in coarse-grained ferritic stainless steel[J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2013, 44A: 469
[37] Buha J, Lumley R N, Crosky A G.Secondary ageing in an aluminium alloy 7050[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2008, A492: 1
[38] Mukhopadhyay A K, Prasad K S.Formation of plate-shaped Guinier-Preston zones during natural aging of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr alloy[J]. Phil. Mag. Lett., 2011, 91: 214
[39] Shu W X.Solidification characteristics and strengthening-toughening mechanisms of 7xxx Al alloys with tailored Mg and Cu elements [D]. Beijing: University of Science and Technology Beijing, 2016(舒文祥. Mg和Cu元素调控的7xxx系铝合金凝固特性及强韧化机理研究 [D]. 北京: 北京科技大学, 2016)
[40] Chandler H D, Bee J V.Cyclic strain induced precipitation in a solution treated aluminium alloy[J]. Acta Metall., 1987, 35: 2503
[41] Deschampsa A, Bréchet Y.Influence of predeformation and ageing of an Al-Zn-Mg alloy——II. Modeling of precipitation kinetics and yield stress[J]. Acta Mater., 1998, 47: 293
[42] Hoyt J J.On the coarsening of precipitates located on grain boundaries and dislocations[J]. Acta Metall. Mater., 1991, 39: 2091
[43] Berg L K, Gj?nnes J, Hansen V, et al.GP-zones in Al-Zn-Mg alloys and their role in artificial aging[J]. Acta Mater., 2001, 49: 3443
[44] Park J K, Ardell A J.Microstructures of the commercial 7075 Al Alloy in the T651 and T7 tempers[J]. Metall. Trans., 1983, 14A: 1957
[45] Deschamps A, Bréchet Y.Nature and distribution of quench-induced precipitation in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy[J]. Scr. Mater., 1998, 39: 1517
[46] Sha G, Cerezo A.Early-stage precipitation in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (7050)[J]. Acta Mater., 2004, 52: 4503
[47] Gubicza J, Schiller I, Chinh N Q, et al. The effect of severe plastic deformation on precipitation in supersaturated Al-Zn-Mg alloys [J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2007, A460-461: 77
[48] Ma K K, Hu T, Yang H, et al.Coupling of dislocations and precipitates: impact on the mechanical behavior of ultrafine grained Al-Zn-Mg alloys[J]. Acta Mater., 2016, 103: 153
[49] Hu T, Ma K, Topping T D, et al.Precipitation phenomena in an ultrafine-grained Al alloy[J]. Acta Mater., 2013, 61: 2163
[50] Peeters B, Seefeldt M, Teodosiu C, et al.Work-hardening/softening behaviour of b.c.c. polycrystals during changing strain paths: I. An integrated model based on substructure and texture evolution, and its prediction of the stress-strain behaviour of an IF steel during two-stage strain paths[J]. Acta Mater., 2001, 49: 1607
[51] Robinson J M.Serrated flow in aluminium base alloys[J]. Int. Mater. Rev., 1994, 39: 217
[52] Yilmaz A.The Portevin-Le Chatelier effect: A review of experimental findings[J]. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater., 2011, 12: 063001
[53] Picu R C.A mechanism for the negative strain-rate sensitivity of dilute solid solutions[J]. Acta Mater., 2004, 52: 3447
[54] Jiang H F.On the plastic instabilities phenomenon (Portevin-Le Chatelier effect) in Al alloys: Experiments and theoretical investigations [D]. Hefei: University of Science and Technology of China, 2006(江慧丰. Al合金中塑性失稳现象(Portevin-Le Chatelier效应)的实验和机理研究 [D]. 合肥: 中国科学技术大学, 2006)
[55] Sun L, Zhang Q C, Liu H W.Influence of precipitates on the serrated yielding in Al-Cu-Mg alloy and microscopic experiment investigation[J]. J. Exp. Mech., 2007, 22: 419(孙亮, 张青川, 刘颢文. 沉淀对Al-Cu-Mg 合金中锯齿形屈服现象影响及其微观实验研究 [J]. 实验力学, 2007, 22: 419)
[56] Xu Y H, Huang D Q, Wang S L.A study on serrated flow of Al Zn Mg Cu by acoustic emission[J]. J. Wuhan Univ.(Nat. Sci. Ed.), 1983, (4): 50)
[57] Lebyodkin M, Brechet Y, Estrin Y, et al.Statistical behaviour and strain localization patterns in the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect[J]. Acta Mater., 1996, 44: 4531
[58] Pink E.The effect of precipitates on characteristics of serrated flow in AlZn5Mg1[J]. Acta Metall., 1989, 37: 1773
[59] Thevenet D, Mliha-Touati M, Zeghloul A.The effect of precipitation on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 1999, A266: 175
[60] Hu Q, Zhang Q C, Fu S H, et al.Influence of precipitation on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect in Al-Mg alloys[J]. Theor. Appl. Mech. Lett., 2011, 1: 011007
[1] HUANG Yuan, DU Jinlong, WANG Zumin. Progress in Research on the Alloying of Binary Immiscible Metals[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(6): 801-820.
[2] GENG Yaoxiang, FAN Shimin, JIAN Jianglin, XU Shu, ZHANG Zhijie, JU Hongbo, YU Lihua, XU Junhua. Mechanical Properties of AlSiMg Alloy Specifically Designed for Selective Laser Melting[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(6): 821-830.
[3] YU Jiaying, WANG Hua, ZHENG Weisen, HE Yanlin, WU Yurui, LI Lin. Effect of the Interface Microstructure of Hot-Dip Galvanizing High-Strength Automobile Steel on Its Tensile Fracture Behaviors[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(6): 863-873.
[4] LIU Zhenpeng, YAN Zhiqiao, CHEN Feng, WANG Shuncheng, LONG Ying, WU Yixiong. Fabrication and Performance Characterization of Cu-10Sn-xNi Alloy for Diamond Tools[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(5): 760-768.
[5] ZHAO Yanchun, MAO Xuejing, LI Wensheng, SUN Hao, LI Chunling, ZHAO Pengbiao, KOU Shengzhong, Liaw Peter K.. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Fe-15Mn-5Si-14Cr-0.2C Amorphous Steel[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(5): 715-722.
[6] YAO Xiaofei, WEI Jingpeng, LV Yukun, LI Tianye. Precipitation σ Phase Evoluation and Mechanical Properties of (CoCrFeMnNi)97.02Mo2.98 High Entropy Alloy[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(5): 769-775.
[7] LIANG Mengchao, CHEN Liang, ZHAO Guoqun. Effects of Artificial Ageing on Mechanical Properties and Precipitation of 2A12 Al Sheet[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(5): 736-744.
[8] LI Yuancai, JIANG Wugui, ZHOU Yu. Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Propertiesof Carbon Nanotubes-Reinforced Nickel Nano-Honeycombs[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(5): 785-794.
[9] YANG Ke,SHI Xianbo,YAN Wei,ZENG Yunpeng,SHAN Yiyin,REN Yi. Novel Cu-Bearing Pipeline Steels: A New Strategy to Improve Resistance to Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion for Pipeline Steels[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(4): 385-399.
[10] LI Xiucheng,SUN Mingyu,ZHAO Jingxiao,WANG Xuelin,SHANG Chengjia. Quantitative Crystallographic Characterization of Boundaries in Ferrite-Bainite/Martensite Dual-Phase Steels[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(4): 653-660.
[11] JIANG Yi,CHENG Manlang,JIANG Haihong,ZHOU Qinglong,JIANG Meixue,JIANG Laizhu,JIANG Yiming. Microstructure and Properties of 08Cr19Mn6Ni3Cu2N (QN1803) High Strength Nitrogen Alloyed LowNickel Austenitic Stainless Steel[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(4): 642-652.
[12] QIAN Yue,SUN Rongrong,ZHANG Wenhuai,YAO Meiyi,ZHANG Jinlong,ZHOU Bangxin,QIU Yunlong,YANG Jian,CHENG Guoguang,DONG Jianxin. Effect of Nb on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Fe22Cr5Al3Mo Alloy[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(3): 321-332.
[13] CAO Yuhan,WANG Lilin,WU Qingfeng,HE Feng,ZHANG Zhongming,WANG Zhijun. Partially Recrystallized Structure and Mechanical Properties of CoCrFeNiMo0.2 High-Entropy Alloy[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(3): 333-339.
[14] YU Lei,LUO Haiwen. Effect of Partial Recrystallization Annealing on Magnetic Properties and Mechanical Properties of Non-Oriented Silicon Steel[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(3): 291-300.
[15] DENG Congkun,JIANG Hongxiang,ZHAO Jiuzhou,HE Jie,ZHAO Lei. Study on the Solidification of Ag-Ni Monotectic Alloy[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(2): 212-220.
No Suggested Reading articles found!