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金属学报  2020, Vol. 56 Issue (1): 53-65    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00146
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(9~12)%Cr马氏体耐热钢中微量B元素的择优分布行为及其对微观组织与力学性能的影响
杨柯1,梁烨1,2,严伟1,3(),单以银1,3
1. 中国科学院金属研究所  沈阳 110016
2. 中国科学技术大学材料科学与工程学院  沈阳 110016
3. 中国科学院金属研究所中国科学院核用材料与安全评价重点实验室  沈阳 110016
Preferential Distribution of Boron and its Effect on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of (9~12)%Cr Martensitic Heat Resistant Steels
YANG Ke1,LIANG Ye1,2,YAN Wei1,3(),SHAN Yiyin1,3
1. Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
2. School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Shenyang 110016, China
3. Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
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摘要: 

(9~12)%Cr钢中添加微量B元素可显著抑制M23C6碳化物的熟化,从而提高蠕变强度,增加蠕变断裂寿命。钢中B元素的择优分布行为是其充分发挥积极作用的关键,也是深入研究其作用机理的前提,一直是(9~12)%Cr马氏体耐热钢领域的研究热点。本文简述了B元素对钢力学性能的影响,介绍了表征钢中微量B元素分布的常用实验手段。在阐述B元素在钢中的物理冶金学原理以及固溶与扩散机制的基础上,重点讨论了B元素在(9~12)%Cr马氏体耐热钢中的择优分布行为及其影响因素。最后对目前微量B元素抑制马氏体耐热钢中M23C6碳化物熟化的2种机理进行了梳理,系统地阐述了B元素的择优分布行为与其抑制M23C6碳化物熟化、提高蠕变性能的积极作用之间的关系,深化对B元素在(9~12)%Cr马氏体耐热钢中的作用机理的认识。

关键词 马氏体耐热钢B偏聚M23C6碳化物Ostwald熟化    
Abstract

Addition of small amount of boron (B) in the (9~12)%Cr martensitic heat resistant steels can obviously prohibit the Ostwald ripening of M23C6 carbides so as to improve creep strength as well as creep rupture life. With the purpose of taking full advantages of B element, it is critical to make B preferentially distribute in (9~12)%Cr martensitic heat resistant steels. The mechanism of B preventing M23C6 carbides from ripening is also on the premise of clearly identifying the preferential distribution of B in the steels. Much concern has been growing over the preferential distribution of B in the research of (9~12)%Cr martensitic heat resistant steels. Therefore, this article gives a review on this aspect. Following a summary of the effect of B on mechanical properties, several commonly used characterizing methods for B segregation in the steels are introduced. Based on the physical metallurgy and the solution, diffusion mechanisms of B element, discussions on the preferential distribution of B element at prior austenite grain boundaries and in the M23C6 carbides as well as the related factors are emphasized. At last, two prevalent mechanisms of B restraining the coarsening of M23C6 carbides in (9~12)%Cr martensitic heat resistant steels are given by an intensive explanation so that the relationship between the preferential distribution of B and its advantage of increasing creep performance by suppressing the ripening M23C6 carbides are systematically elaborated, which gives a deep understanding of the role of B element in (9~12)%Cr martensitic heat resistant steels.

Key wordsmartensitic heat resistant steel    B    segregation    M23C6 carbide    Ostwald ripening
收稿日期: 2019-05-06     
ZTFLH:  TG142.1  
基金资助:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFB0305201);国家自然科学基金项目(51971226)
通讯作者: 严伟     E-mail: weiyan@imr.ac.cn
Corresponding author: Wei YAN     E-mail: weiyan@imr.ac.cn
作者简介: 杨 柯,男,1961年生,研究员

引用本文:

杨柯,梁烨,严伟,单以银. (9~12)%Cr马氏体耐热钢中微量B元素的择优分布行为及其对微观组织与力学性能的影响[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(1): 53-65.
Ke YANG, Ye LIANG, Wei YAN, Yiyin SHAN. Preferential Distribution of Boron and its Effect on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of (9~12)%Cr Martensitic Heat Resistant Steels. Acta Metall Sin, 2020, 56(1): 53-65.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00146      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2020/V56/I1/53

图1  热处理态G115钢中的硼化物
图2  不同温度时效1000 h后G115钢中B元素的分布
图3  700 ℃时效1000 h后G115钢中发生熟化的M23C6碳化物
图4  利用原子探针层析术(APT)获得的原奥氏体晶界处M23C6碳化物的原子三维重构图[8]
图5  热处理过程中M23(CB)6的形成过程示意图[10]
图6  B抑制M23C6碳化物熟化机理图[9]
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