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金属学报  2018, Vol. 54 Issue (2): 174-192    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00418
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镁合金压铸过程界面传热行为及凝固组织结构的表征与模拟研究
熊守美1,2(), 杜经莲1, 郭志鹏1, 杨满红1, 吴孟武1, 毕成1, 曹永友1
1清华大学材料科学与工程学院 北京 100084
2清华大学先进成形制造教育部重点实验室 北京 100084
Characterization and Modeling Study on Interfacial Heat Transfer Behavior and Solidified Microstructure of Die Cast Magnesium Alloys
Shoumei XIONG1,2(), Jinglian DU1, Zhipeng GUO1, Manhong YANG1, Mengwu WU1, Cheng BI1, Yongyou CAO1
1 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2 Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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摘要: 

本文系统介绍了镁合金压铸界面换热行为以及凝固微观组织结构的实验表征及计算模拟方面的研究进展,包括:(1) 一种基于换热系数的边界设定模型,由此发现了压铸界面换热系数可以分为初始升高、高值维持、快速下降及低值保持4个阶段;(2) 压室预结晶流动分布预测模型,据此得到了压室预结晶组织的主要分布规律及其对镁合金铸件缺陷带形成的影响;(3) 考虑压室预结晶组织的压铸镁合金形核模型及生长模型;(4) 结合离异共晶形核及生长机制建立的镁合金压铸工艺条件下微观组织演变的数学模型;(5) 镁合金枝晶组织的三维形貌和生长取向的研究,发现镁合金枝晶组织呈现十八个分支的形貌特征,分别沿着基面的<112?0>方向和非基面的<112?3>方向生长,由此建立了镁合金枝晶各向异性的生长模型,实现了镁合金枝晶组织的三维模拟研究。

关键词 镁合金压力铸造界面传热凝固微观组织    
Abstract

Magnesium alloys are widely used in various fields because of their outstanding properties. High-pressure die casting (HPDC) is one of the primary manufacturing methods of magnesium alloys. During the HPDC process, the solidification manner of casting is highly dependent on the heat transfer behavior at metal-die interface, which directly affects the solidified microstructure evolution, defect distribution and mechanical properties of the cast products. As common solidified microstructures of die cast magnesium alloys, the externally solidified crystals (ESCs), divorced eutectics and primary dendrites have important influences on the final performance of castings. Therefore, investigations on the interfacial heat transfer behavior and the solidified microstructures of magnesium alloys have considerable significance on the optimization of die-casting process and the prediction of casting quality. In this paper, recent research progress on theoretical simulation and experimental characterization of the heat transfer behaviors and the solidified microstructures of die cast magnesium alloys was systematically presented. The contents include:(1) A boundary-condition model developed based on the interfacial heat transfer coefficients (IHTCs), which could precisely simulate the boundary condition at the metal-die interface during solidification process. Accordingly, the IHTCs can be divided into four stages, namely the initial increasing stage, the high value maintaining stage, the fast decreasing stage and the low value maintaining stage. (2) A numerical model developed to simulate and predict the flow patterns of the externally solidified crystals (ESCs) in the shot sleeve during mold filling process, together with discussion on the influence of the ESCs distribution on the defect bands of die cast magnesium alloys. (3) Nucleation and growth models of the primary α-Mg phases developed by considering the ESCs in the shot sleeve. (4) Nucleation and growth models of the divorced eutectic phase, which can be used to simulate the microstructure evolution of die cast magnesium alloys. (5) The 3D morphology and orientation selection of magnesium alloy dendrite. It was found that magnesium alloy dendrite exhibits an eighteen-primary branch pattern in 3D, with six growing along <112?0> in the basal plane and the other twelve along <112?3> in non-basal planes. Accordingly, an anisotropy growth function was developed and coupled into the phase field model to achieve the 3D simulation of magnesium alloy dendrite.

Key wordsmagnesium alloy    high pressure die casting    interfacial heat transfer    solidified microstructure
收稿日期: 2017-10-09     
基金资助:国家重点研发计划项目No.2016YFB0301001,国家自然科学基金项目No.51701104,以及中国博士后科学基金项目No.2017M610884
作者简介:

作者简介 熊守美,男,1966年生,教授,博士

引用本文:

熊守美, 杜经莲, 郭志鹏, 杨满红, 吴孟武, 毕成, 曹永友. 镁合金压铸过程界面传热行为及凝固组织结构的表征与模拟研究[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(2): 174-192.
Shoumei XIONG, Jinglian DU, Zhipeng GUO, Manhong YANG, Mengwu WU, Cheng BI, Yongyou CAO. Characterization and Modeling Study on Interfacial Heat Transfer Behavior and Solidified Microstructure of Die Cast Magnesium Alloys. Acta Metall Sin, 2018, 54(2): 174-192.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00418      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2018/V54/I2/174

图1  阶梯和手指状铸件的结构、几何尺寸与实际压铸件[12]
图 2  压室几何形状和边界条件[57]
Material λc
Wm-1-1
ρ
kgm-3
cp
Jkg-1-1
TL
TS
Lcr
Jkg-1
AM50 62 1780 1050 628 546 373000
ADC12 92 2700 963 587 531 389000
H13 31.2-0.013 T 7730-0.24 T 478-0.219 T 1471 1404 209350
表1  实验采用材料的热物性参数[16,17,18,19,20]
图3  换热系数h与固相分数fs变化关系[20]
图4  常规压铸条件A380和AZ91D合金单个循环下压室不同位置的界面换热系数[1]
图5  镁合金压铸件表层及中心典型显微组织,“阶梯”压铸件截面厚度方向ESCs含量的统计分布图[44]
图6  不同时刻ESCs在不同截面上的分布[45]
Parameter Value Unit
Eutectic temperature (TE) 710 K
Eutectic composition (CE) 32.3 Mass fraction, %
Solute concentration of α phase (Cα0) 12.7 Mass fraction, %
Solute concentration of β phase (Cβ0) 40.2 Mass fraction, %
Volume fraction of α phase (fα) 0.31
Volume fraction of β phase (fβ) 0.69
Liquid slope of α phase (mα) -6.59 K%-1 (mass fraction)
Liquid slope of β phase (mβ) 2.15 K%-1 (mass fraction)
Solute diffusion coefficient in liquid (DL) 3×10-9 m2s-1
Gibbs-Thamson's coefficient of α phase (Γα) 1.5×10-7 mK
Gibbs-Thamson's coefficient of β phase (Γβ) 1.5×10-7 mK
表2  模拟算例中Mg-Al共晶成分合金的热物性参数取值[50,53]
图 7  AM60B镁合金压铸件中心区域微观组织结构的演变、模拟结果与实验结果的对比[50]
图8  镁合金AZ91铸锭组织及Mg-30%Gd合金铸态和淬火态微观组织
图9  重构所得Mg-30%Sn和Mg-30%Gd合金三维枝晶形貌[33]
图 10  基于EBSD的Mg-30%Gd合金枝晶生长方向标定[33]
图11  不同取向视图下α-Mg十八分支枝晶模拟与Mg-30%Sn重构枝晶形貌的对比[29]
图12  金属Mg低指数晶面对应的原子密度,低指数原子密排面晶面间距,镁合金枝晶优先生长方向对应的晶向角锥体方向示意图[33]
图13  金属Mg及其合金在4种不同势函数下各晶面的表面能及预测形貌[39,40]
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