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金属学报  2018, Vol. 54 Issue (11): 1567-1585    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00356
  材料与工艺 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 |
新一代飞机起落架用马氏体时效不锈钢的研究
杨柯1, 牛梦超1,2, 田家龙3, 王威1
1 中国科学院金属研究所 沈阳 110016
2 中国科学技术大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110016
3 东北大学冶金学院 沈阳110819
Research and Development of Maraging Stainless Steel Used for New Generation Landing Gear
Ke YANG1, Mengchao U1,2, Jialong AN3, Wei NG1
1 Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
2 School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Shenyang 110016, China
3 School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
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摘要: 

飞机起落架的性能与飞机的使用安全性密切相关,因此提高飞机起落架用材料的综合性能至关重要。本文通过总结飞机起落架用材料的应用现状和存在的问题,提出了新一代飞机起落架用材料的发展方向,并重点介绍了一种兼顾高强度、高韧性和优异耐蚀性能的新型马氏体时效不锈钢,该钢作为未来起落架用钢的候选材料具有广阔的应用前景。

关键词 飞机起落架马氏体时效不锈钢强韧性耐蚀性    
Abstract

Properties of landing gear are closely related to the service safety of aircraft. Thus, it is essential to improve the comprehensive properties of the material used for landing gear. This article briefly introduces the application status and existing problems of currently used landing gear materials, and then proposes future developing directions of landing gear materials. Finally, a new maraging stainless steel with high strength, high toughness and good corrosion resistance, which can be a promising steel for the new generation landing gear material, is introduced.

Key wordslanding gear    maraging stainless steel    strength and toughness    corrosion resistance
收稿日期: 2018-07-30      出版日期: 2018-08-30
ZTFLH:  TG142.71  
基金资助:资助项目 国家自然科学基金项目No.51201160,国家自然科学基金外国青年学者研究基金项目 No.51750110515,中国科学院创新促进会项目No.2017233和中国科学院金属研究所创新基金重点项目 No.2015-ZD04
作者简介:

作者简介 杨 柯,男,1961年生,研究员

引用本文:

杨柯, 牛梦超, 田家龙, 王威. 新一代飞机起落架用马氏体时效不锈钢的研究[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(11): 1567-1585.
Ke YANG, Mengchao U, Jialong AN, Wei NG. Research and Development of Maraging Stainless Steel Used for New Generation Landing Gear. Acta Metall Sin, 2018, 54(11): 1567-1585.

链接本文:

http://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00356      或      http://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2018/V54/I11/1567

Material Mass fraction of element / % Ultimate tensile strength / MPa Fracture toughness MPam1/2
C Cr Ni Mo Co Others
300M[1,2] 0.39 0.91 1.82 0.42 - Si 1.61, V 0.07, Mn 0.69 1975 84
AerMet100[3,4,5] 0.24 2.99 11.20 1.18 13.40 Si 0.03, Mn<0.01 1965 115
Ferrium S53[8,9] 0.21 10.00 5.50 2.00 14.00 W 1.00,V 0.30 1986 71
S280[10,11] 0.18 12.00 4.00 2.00 14.00 W 1.00 1930 95
表1  飞机起落架用高强度钢的化学成分和力学性能[1~5,8~11]
Material Mass fraction of element / % Ultimate tensile Corrosion
C Cr Ni Mo Co Others strength / MPa resistance
Custom 475[12] 0.01 10.8 8.1 5.1 8.5 Al 1.2 2006 Poor
Custom 465[13] 0.0046 10.7 10.9 0.86 - Ti 1.4, Al 0.04 1779 Normal
1RK91[14] 0.01 12.2 8.99 4.02 - Ti 0.87, Cu 1.95, Al 0.33 1700 Normal
PH13-8Mo[15] 0.03 12.43 8.39 2.15 - Al 0.97, Ti 0.067 1551 Good
17-4 PH[16] 0.023 15.7 4.89 0.21 - Cu 3.65 1399 Good
15-5 PH[17] 0.041 14.8 4.87 - 0.08 Cu 3.10, Nb 0.30 1325 Good
表2  几种典型马氏体时效不锈钢的化学成分、抗拉强度和耐蚀性能[12,13,14,15,16,17]
Steel C Cr Ni Co Mo Ti Al P S Fe
0Co 0.002 12.31 5.42 0.02 5.08 0.41 0.05 0.003 0.004 Bal.
5Co 0.003 12.06 5.13 5.05 5.13 0.38 0.05 0.005 0.003 Bal.
13Co 0.005 12.33 4.55 13.10 5.59 0.41 0.09 0.004 0.002 Bal.
表3  Co含量分别为0、5%和13%的马氏体时效不锈钢的化学成分[30]
图1  不同Co含量的马氏体时效不锈钢在3.5%NaCl溶液浸泡480 h前后样品表面的宏观形貌
图2  不同Co含量的马氏体时效不锈钢在500 ℃ 时效不同时间后的Cr原子分布图[30]
图3  不同Co含量马氏体时效不锈钢在500 ℃时效不同时间的腐蚀电流密度和调幅分解幅度[30]
图4  Cr、Co、Fe在4个模型中的原子位置示意图[30]
图5  Cr原子团簇形成能和Fe原子平均磁矩差变化[30]
Steel C Cr Ni Co Mo Ti Fe
7Co 0.004 12.35 5.28 7.22 3.53 0.46 Bal.
10Co 0.004 12.00 5.35 10.10 3.64 0.41 Bal.
13Co 0.005 12.10 5.40 12.80 3.66 0.43 Bal.
表4  Co含量分别为7%、10%及13%马氏体时效不锈钢的化学成分
图6  不同Co含量马氏体时效不锈钢的显微组织和原始奥氏体晶粒尺寸
图7  不同Co含量马氏体时效不锈钢在520 ℃的时效硬化曲线
图8  固溶态和峰时效态下不同Co含量马氏体时效不锈钢的屈服强度
图9  峰时效态下不同Co含量马氏体时效不锈钢的TEM像和SAED花样
图10  峰时效态7Co马氏体时效不锈钢中元素分布的3DAP分析
Precipitate Steel rmin / nm rmax / nm Nv fp / % rp / nm
Ni3Ti 7Co 1.83 12.68 7.56 4.69 7.15
10Co 1.15 9.52 9.81 4.81 6.33
13Co 1.28 7.55 17.6 4.78 4.83
R 7Co 7.05 22.38 1.02 4.98 12.52
10Co 6.42 20.72 1.18 5.48 12.14
13Co 6.53 18.72 1.37 5.31 11.09
表5  不同Co含量马氏体时效不锈钢中析出相的分布特征统计结果
图11  马氏体时效不锈钢时效过程中析出相的演化机制示意图[43]
图12  不同Co含量马氏体时效不锈钢在520 ℃时效处理1 h后Ni3Ti分布特征的3DAP分析
图13  不同Co含量马氏体时效不锈钢在520 ℃时效0.5 h后的元素分布[44]
图14  不同Co含量马氏体时效不锈钢在520 ℃时效0.5 h后的Ni-Ti团簇尺寸分布特征[44]
图15  13Co钢经520 ℃时效0.5 h后Ni-Ti团簇与基体中元素的3D重建特征[44]
图16  Fe、Ni、Ti、Co在2个合金模型中的原子位置示意图[44]
图17  不同Ni-Ti团簇的构型和能量值计算结果[44]
图18  不同构型的Ni-Ti团簇形成能[44]
图19  不同结构二元合金的形成能[44]
Steel C Cr Ni Co Mo Ti O N Fe
Prototype steel <0.01 12.33 4.55 13.10 5.59 0.41 <0.003 <0.003 Bal.
New steel <0.01 12~13 6~8 5~8 2~4 1~2 <0.003 <0.003 Bal.
表6  新型马氏体时效不锈钢的化学成分
图20  新型钢在固溶态和峰时效态下的微观组织形貌[43]
图21  峰时效态下新型钢中的析出相形貌[43]
图22  不同马氏体时效不锈钢峰时效态试样浸泡144 h前后的形貌[53]
图23  不同马氏体时效不锈钢经过浸泡实验后的表面钝化膜成分随溅射时间的变化[53]
图24  新型钢和商用马氏体时效不锈钢在峰时效状态下的强度-韧性-耐蚀性能关系图[43]
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