Please wait a minute...
Acta Metall Sin  2018, Vol. 54 Issue (6): 868-876    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00318
Orginal Article Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Morphological Characteristics and Size Distributions of Three-Dimensional Grains and Grain Boundaries in 316L Stainless Steel
Tingguang LIU1,2(), Shuang XIA2, Qin BAI2, Bangxin ZHOU2
1 National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China
Download:  HTML  PDF(2969KB) 
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  

Three-dimensional characterization of grains and grain boundaries is significant to study the microstructure of polycrystalline materials, and is the key to advance the subject of three-dimensional materials science (3DMS). In this work, the technique of serial sectioning by mechanical polishing coupled with 3D electron backscatter diffraction (3D-EBSD) mapping was used to measure the microstructure of a 316L stainless steel in 3D. Volume of the collected 3D-EBSD microstructure is 600 μm×600 μm×257.5 μm, which is quite large to study the 3D microstructure of structural materials with conventional grain size (20~60 μm). Dream3D and in-house developed Matlab programs were used to process the 3D-EBSD data, and subsequently ParaView was used to visualize the grains and grain boundaries in 3D. Combined usage of these tools and in-house programs make the possibility that not only 3D grains but also 3D grain boundaries can be studied in both morphology and quantification. In total, 1840 grains and 9177 grain boundaries are included in the measured 3D-EBSD microstructure. The 3D morphological characteristics and size distributions of grains and grain boundaries in the 316L stainless steel were investigated, including 3D grain size, grain surface area, boundary quantity per grain, grain boundary size and the average boundary size per grain, as well as relationships between these morphological parameters were discussed. Results showed that distributions of all of these morphological parameters of 3D grains and grain boundaries in the polycrystalline 316L steel can be well represented by log-normal distribution, and all relationships of these parameters versus grain size can be well represented by power function. Additionally, the 3D morphologies of most grains in the 316L stainless steel deviate from the ideal equiaxed grains, having complex shapes due to existing of twins, such as semi-sphere shaped, plate shaped and some very complex grains. In many ways, the larger grains have more complex morphology with greater number of faces, larger surface area and larger deviation from equiaxed grains.

Key words:  316L stainless steel      3D-EBSD      3D microstructure      3D grain      3D grain boundary     
Received:  27 July 2017     
ZTFLH:  TG142.1  
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51671122) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No.FRF-TP-16-041A1)

Cite this article: 

Tingguang LIU, Shuang XIA, Qin BAI, Bangxin ZHOU. Morphological Characteristics and Size Distributions of Three-Dimensional Grains and Grain Boundaries in 316L Stainless Steel. Acta Metall Sin, 2018, 54(6): 868-876.

URL: 

https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00318     OR     https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/Y2018/V54/I6/868

Fig.1  Reconstructed 3D-EBSD microstructures of a 316L stainless steel sample
(a) schematic of specimen and mark for EBSD mapping
(b) the bulk microstructure that colored by using the standard inverse-pole-figure (IPF) color code of direction Z
(c) cross-section map in X-Y-Z directions
(d) visualization of a part of the measured 3D grain boundary network (The grain boundaries were colored according to the angle of misorientation)
(e) the 2D EBSD microstructure of slice 101
Fig.2  3D visualizations of a typical grain (a) from the 316L stainless steel and four boundaries (b~e) on the grain (The grains or boundaries were colored according to the angle of grain boundary misorientations)
Fig.3  Grain size distribution for the 3D-EBSD microstructure of 316L and its log-normal fitting curve (y0, A and w—constants, d—grain diameter, c—the median value in the log-normal distribution)
Fig.4  Statistic of grain surface area for the 3D microstructure and the log-normal fitting curve (The 6 grains with surface area larger than 1.1×105 μm2 are shown separately) (a), relationship between the grain surface area and the grain size and its power function fitting curve, and the curve of sphere surface area to diameter (b)
Fig.5  A morphologically complex large grain g101 in the 3D microstructure of 316L (a) and two relative small grains g1211 (b) and g1026 (c) that are neighbors of the large grain
Fig.6  Statistic of the quantity of boundaries (or faces) per grain (F) for the 3D microstructure and the log-normal fitting curve (a), relationship between the boundary quantity per grain and the grain size and its power function fitting curve (b)
Fig.7  Statistic of equivalent circle diameters of boundaries for the 3D microstructure and the log-normal fitting curve
Fig.8  Statistic of the average boundary diameter per grain for the 3D microstructure and the log-normal fitting curve (a), relationship between the average boundary diameter per grain and the grain size and its power function fitting curve (b)
[1] Lewis A C, Howe D.Future directions in 3D materials science: Outlook from the first international conference on 3D materials science[J]. JOM, 2014, 66: 670
[2] Watanabe T.An approach to grain boundary design for strong and ductile polycrystals[J]. Res. Mech., 1984, 11: 47
[3] Hu C L, Xia S, Li H, et al.Improving the intergranular corrosion resistance of 304 stainless steel by grain boundary network control[J]. Corros. Sci., 2011, 53: 1880
[4] Liu T G, Xia S, Li H, et al.The highly twinned grain boundary network formation during grain boundary engineering[J]. Mater. Lett., 2014, 133: 97
[5] Michiuchi M, Kokawa H, Wang Z J, et al.Twin-induced grain boundary engineering for 316 austenitic stainless steel[J]. Acta Mater., 2006, 54: 5179
[6] Schuh C A, Minich R W, Kumar M.Connectivity and percolation in simulated grain-boundary networks[J]. Philos. Mag., 2003, 83: 711
[7] Frary M, Schuh C A.Connectivity and percolation behaviour of grain boundary networks in three dimensions[J]. Philos. Mag., 2005, 85: 1123
[8] Ullah A, Liu G Q, Luan J H, et al.Three-dimensional visualization and quantitative characterization of grains in polycrystalline iron[J]. Mater. Charact., 2014, 91: 65
[9] Xu W, Ferry M, Mateescu N, et al.Techniques for generating 3-D EBSD microstructures by FIB tomography[J]. Mater. Charact., 2007, 58: 961
[10] Zaefferer S, Wright S I, Raabe D.Three-dimensional orientation microscopy in a focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope: A new dimension of microstructure characterization[J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2008, 39A: 374
[11] Wang H Z, Yang P, Mao W M.3D EBSD analysis of morphology and habit plane for lath martensite[J]. J. Mater. Eng., 2013, (4): 74(王会珍, 杨平, 毛卫民. 板条状马氏体形貌和惯习面的3D EBSD分析[J]. 材料工程, 2013, (4): 74)
[12] Lewis A C, Bingert J F, Rowenhorst D J, et al.Two-and three-dimensional microstructural characterization of a super-austenitic stainless steel[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2006, A418: 11
[13] Rowenhorst D J, Gupta A, Feng C R, et al.3D crystallographic and morphological analysis of coarse martensite: Combining EBSD and serial sectioning[J]. Scr. Mater., 2006, 55: 11
[14] Luan J H, Liu G Q, Wang H.Three-dimensional reconstruction of grains in pure iron specimen[J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2011, 47: 69(栾军华, 刘国权, 王浩. 纯Fe试样中晶粒的三维可视化重建[J]. 金属学报, 2011, 47: 69)
[15] Lind J, Li S F, Kumar M.Twin related domains in 3D microstructures of conventionally processed and grain boundary engineered materials[J]. Acta Mater., 2016, 114: 43
[16] Hefferan C M, Lind J, Li S F, et al.Observation of recovery and recrystallization in high-purity aluminum measured with forward modeling analysis of high-energy diffraction microscopy[J]. Acta Mater., 2012, 60: 4311
[17] Lin B, Jin Y, Hefferan C M, et al.Observation of annealing twin nucleation at triple lines in nickel during grain growth[J]. Acta Mater., 2015, 99: 63
[18] King A, Johnson G, Engelberg D, et al.Observations of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in a grain-mapped polycrystal[J]. Science, 2008, 321: 382
[19] Larson B C, Yang W G, Ice G E, et al.Three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicrometre resolution[J]. Nature, 2002, 415: 887
[20] Rowenhorst D J, Lewis A C, Spanos G.Three-dimensional analysis of grain topology and interface curvature in a β-titanium alloy[J]. Acta Mater., 2010, 58: 5511
[21] Zhang C, Enomoto M, Suzuki A, et al.Characterization of three-dimensional grain structure in polycrystalline iron by serial sectioning[J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2004, 35A: 1927
[22] Hull F C.Plane section and spatial characteristics of equiaxed β-brass grains[J]. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1988, 4: 778
[23] Groeber M, Ghosh S, Uchic M D, et al.A framework for automated analysis and simulation of 3D polycrystalline microstructure: Part 1: Statistical characterization[J]. Acta Mater., 2008, 56: 1257
[24] Marrow T J, Babout L, Jivkov A P, et al.Three dimensional observations and modelling of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steel[J]. J. Nucl. Mater., 2006, 352: 62
[25] Groeber M A, Jackson M A.DREAM. 3D: A digital representation environment for the analysis of microstructure in 3D[J]. Integr. Mater. Manuf. Innov., 2014, 3: 5
[26] Groeber M, Ghosh S, Uchic M D, et al.A framework for automated analysis and simulation of 3D polycrystalline microstructures: Part 2: Synthetic structure generation[J]. Acta Mater., 2008, 56: 1274
[27] Bhandari Y, Sarkar S, Groeber M, et al.3D polycrystalline microstructure reconstruction from FIB generated serial sections for FE analysis[J]. Comput. Mater. Sci., 2007, 41: 222
[28] Ayachit U.The ParaView Guide: A Parallel Visualization Application[M]. New York: Kitware, 2015: 1
[29] Feltham P.Grain growth in metals[J]. Acta Metall., 1957, 5: 97
[30] Liu T G, Xia S, Wang B S, et al.Grain orientation statistics of grain-clusters and the propensity of multiple-twinning during grain boundary engineering[J]. Mater. Des., 2016, 112: 442
[1] YU Chenfan, ZHAO Congcong, ZHANG Zhefeng, LIU Wei. Tensile Properties of Selective Laser Melted 316L Stainless Steel[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(5): 683-692.
[2] Dan LI, Yang LI, Rongsheng CHEN, Hongwei NI. Direct Synthesis of NiCo2O4 Nanoneedles and MoS2 Nanoflakes Grown on 316L Stainless Steel Meshes by Two Step Hydrothermal Method for HER[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(8): 1179-1186.
[3] Tingguang LIU, Shuang XIA, Qin BAI, Bangxin ZHOU, Yonghao LU. Distribution Characteristics of Twin-Boundaries in Three-Dimensional Grain Boundary Network of 316L Stainless Steel[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(10): 1377-1386.
[4] Shu GUO,En-Hou HAN,Haitao WANG,Zhiming ZHANG,Jianqiu WANG. Life Prediction for Stress Corrosion Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel Elbow of Nuclear Power Plant[J]. 金属学报, 2017, 53(4): 455-464.
[5] Guanglu MA, Xinyu CUI, Yanfang SHEN, CINCA Nuria, M. GUILEMANY Josep, Tianying XIONG. INFLUENCE OF SUBSTRATE MECHANICAL PROPER-TIES ON DEPOSITION BEHAVIOUR OF 316L STAINLESS STEEL POWDER[J]. 金属学报, 2016, 52(12): 1610-1618.
[6] LIU Xiahe,WU Xinqiang,HAN En-hou. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON LECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION OF DOMESTIC NUCLEAR-GRADE 316L STAINLESS STEEL IN Zn-INJECTED AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENT[J]. 金属学报, 2014, 50(1): 64-70.
[7] ZHANG Litao,WANG Jianqiu. STRESS CORROSION CRACK PROPAGATION BEHAVIOR OF DOMESTIC FORGED NUCLEAR GRADE 316L STAINLESS STEEL IN HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE WATER[J]. 金属学报, 2013, 49(8): 911-916.
[8] LA Peiqing, MENG Qian, YAO Liang, ZHOU Maoxiong, Wei Yupeng. EFFECTS OF Al ELEMENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HOT-ROLLED 316L STAINLESS STEEL[J]. 金属学报, 2013, 49(6): 739-744.
[9] LIU Guangzhou WANG Jianming ZHANG Jianqing CAO Chunan. EFFECT OF ELECTROLYTIC TREATMENT OF BALLAST WATER ON THE CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF 316L STAINLESS STEEL[J]. 金属学报, 2011, 47(12): 1600-1604.
[10] SHI Yongjuan REN Yibin ZHANG Bingchun YANG Ke. THE EFFECT OF PASSIVATION ON THE HAEMOCOMPATIBILITY OF 316L STAINLESS STEEL[J]. 金属学报, 2011, 47(12): 1575-1580.
[11] FANG Xinxian BAI Yunqiang WANG Zhangzhong. EROSION CORROSION BEHAVIOUR OF J4 STAINLESS STEEL AND ELECTROLESS PLATING COATINGS OF Ni–P AND Ni–Cu–P IN LIQUID–SOLID TWO–PHASE FLOW[J]. 金属学报, 2010, 46(2): 239-244.
[12] SONG Renbo XIANG Jianying HOU Dongpo REN Peidong. BEHAVIOR AND MECHANISM OF HOT WORK-HARDENING FOR 316L STAINLESS STEEL[J]. 金属学报, 2010, 46(1): 57-61.
[13] JIANG Huifeng CHEN Xuedong FAN Zhichao DONG Jie JIANG Heng LU Shouxiang. EFFECT OF DYNAMIC STRAIN AGING ON FATIGUE--CREEP BEHAVIOR OF 316L AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL[J]. 金属学报, 2009, 45(3): 326-330.
[14] ;. AN EXACT THREE-DIMENSIONAL VON NEUMANN RELATION FOR INDIVIDUAL CONVEX POLYHEDRON GRAINS[J]. 金属学报, 2008, 44(11): 1332-1334 .
[15] Xu Wang. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON THE SURFACE MODIFICATION OF 316L STAINLESS STEEL BY HIGH-INTENSITY PULSED ION BEAMS[J]. 金属学报, 2007, 43(4): 393-398 .
No Suggested Reading articles found!