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Acta Metall Sin  2019, Vol. 55 Issue (9): 1115-1132    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00142
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Research Progress of Wrought Superalloys in China
DU Jinhui1,LV Xudong1,2(),DONG Jianxin3,SUN Wenru4,BI Zhongnan1,2,ZHAO Guangpu1,DENG Qun1,CUI Chuanyong4,MA Huiping1,ZHANG Beijiang1
1. High-Temperature Materials Institute, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081, China
2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced High Temperature Materials, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081, China
3. School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
4. Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
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Wrought superalloys are high temperature alloys produced by casting-forging-hot rolling-cold drawing, including disc, plate, bar, wire, tape, pipe etc. These products are widely used in aviation, aerospace, energy, petrochemical, nuclear power and other industrial fields. In this paper, domestic progress of wrought superalloys in recent ten years was reviewed, including advances in fabrication process, research in new alloys (GH4169G, GH4169D, GH4065 and GH4068 alloy et al.) and new techniques (deforming of FGH4096 alloy, nitriding of NGH5011 alloy and 3D printing of In718 alloy et al.).

Key words:  wrought superalloy      melting      forging      inspection      3D printing     
Received:  05 May 2019     
ZTFLH:  TG132.2  
Fund: Supported by National Basic Research Program of China(2010CB631203);China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2005037323)
Corresponding Authors:  Xudong LV     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

DU Jinhui,LV Xudong,DONG Jianxin,SUN Wenru,BI Zhongnan,ZHAO Guangpu,DENG Qun,CUI Chuanyong,MA Huiping,ZHANG Beijiang. Research Progress of Wrought Superalloys in China. Acta Metall Sin, 2019, 55(9): 1115-1132.

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Fig.1  Comparisons before and after optimization of vacuum induction melting launder(a) removal ability of inclusions in square flow slots designed by steel works(b) removal ability of inclusions in self-designed square flume(c) residence time distribution (RTD) curves of square flume design in steel works(d) RTD curves of self-designed square flume
Fig.2  Schematic diagram of heat transfer in vacuum arc remelting
Fig.3  Distributions of primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) (a) and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) (b) of ingots (longitudinal section)
Diameter of ingot / mmRange of SDAS / μmAverage of SDAS / μmK
Table 1  Comparisons of the SDAS and Ti element segregation coefficient (K) of different ingot center longitudinal section
Fig.4  Longitudinal section microstructures of centers of GH4720Li ingots(a1~a3) diameter 406 mm ingot (b1~b3) diameter 508 mm ingot
TreatmentMass fraction of Ti in dendrite arm / %Mass fraction of Ti in interdendritic / %K
Before homogeneous3.986.371.601
Schedule 14.715.121.087
Schedule 24.645.251.131
Schedule 34.794.861.015
Table 2  Comparisons of K for Ti element after different homogenization schedules
Fig.5  Simulation of cogging of GH4720Li alloy
Fig.6  Simulation of radial forging of GH4720Li alloy
Fig.7  Photo of the supersize GH4706 alloy turbine disc with a diameter 2100 mm
Fig.8  Measurement penetration vs spatial resolution for various residual stress measurement methods[31]
Fig.9  Relationship between γ" variant selection and grain orientation after thermo-mechanical coupling experiment in GH4169 alloy[33](a) EBSD figure of grain orientation (b) [001] grain orientation (c) [111] grain orientation (d) [101] grain orientation
Fig.10  C-scan images of the turbine disk(a) C-scan of clutter distribution (b) time of flight (TOF) of clutter distribution (c) C-scan of bottom echo distribution

Sample No.


Clutter amplitude

Bottom wave range before changeBottom wave range after changeBottom wave lowered range
1#Rolling state≤10%83%83%0%
3#990 ℃ solution≤10%-68%15%
4#1020 ℃ solution≤10%-52%31%
5#1050 ℃ solution≤10%-38%47%
Table 3  Comparisons of local ultrasonic clutter and bottom echo loss of different heat treatment temperature samples[37,38,39]
Fig.11  The microstructures of GH4169D (a) and GH4169 (b) alloys after standard heat treatment[42]
Table 4  Chemical compositions of high performance disc superalloys[46,47,48,49,50,51,52] (mass fraction / %)
Fig.12  TEM image of an aged reinforced cobalt-based alloy annealed at 900 ℃ for 72 h[60] (a) dark field image(b) selected area electron diffraction pattern
Fig.13  Chemical composite design of GH4068 alloy[59]
Fig.14  Deformation mechanism of GH4068 alloy under different creep conditions[65]
Fig.15  Deformation microstructures of GH4068 alloy at intermediate temperature creep[65](a) 725 ℃, 480 MPa (b) 725 ℃, 630 MPa
Fig.16  Central macrostructure of low-magnification in electroslag remelting continuous directional solidification ingots (diameter 270 mm) of FGH4096 alloy[68]
Fig.17  Microstructures at R/2 region in directional solidification ingots of FGH4096 alloy (R—radius of ingot)[68](a) primary dendrite (b) secondary dendrite
Fig.18  Longitudinal section microstructures of isothermal forging turbine discs of FGH4096 alloy (diameter 630 mm)[68]

Alloy and condition

Room temperature tensile1100 ℃ tensile1100 ℃, 30 MPa endurance life / h
σb / MPaδ / %σb / MPaδ / %
GH353686647.070 (extrapolation)--
MGH956 thick66015.0947.0>1000
MGH956 thin76815.0837.050
Table 5  Comparisons of mechanical properties of various alloys[60]
Fig.19  Gas turbine discs (diameter 150 mm) (a) and integral blade rings (diameter 220 mm) (b) fabricated by additive manufacturing of In718 alloy

Sample and standard

Room temperature tensile650 ℃ tensile
σs / MPaσb / MPaδ / %ψ / %σs / MPaσb / MPaδ / %ψ / %

Anatomical part

Forging standard≥1140≥1340≥12.0≥15≥930≥1100≥12≥15
Table 6  Mechanical properties of gas turbine discs fabricated by additive manufacturing of In718 alloy
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