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Acta Metall Sin  2019, Vol. 55 Issue (9): 1133-1144    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00119
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Research Progress in Powder Metallurgy Superalloys and Manufacturing Technologies for Aero-Engine Application
ZHANG Guoqing1,4,ZHANG Yiwen2,3,ZHENG Liang1,4(),PENG Zichao1
1. Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095, China
2. High Temperature Material Research Institute, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081, China
3. Beijing Key Laboratory of New Superalloy Materials, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081, China
4. AECC Additive Manufacturing Technology Innovation Center, Beijing 100095, China
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Abstract  

The research progress in powder metallurgy (PM) superalloys and manufacturing technologies are reviewed. The key control factors of Ar gas atomization (AA) powder manufacturing are introduced, including the aspects of the equipment development, atomization process, particle size, oxygen content, powder morphology and inclusion control. For the turbine disk manufacturing technology, the research progress of dual-property turbine disk, dual-alloy integral turbine wheel technologies and isothermal forging die materials are summarized. In the field of basic research, high-throughput experiment, advanced characterization and creep behavior of PM superalloys were introduced. According to the current major demand for aero-engines and 3D printing, the future of PM superalloys manufacturing technology is prospected.

Key words:  aero-engine      powder metallurgy superalloy      Ar gas atomized powder manufacturing      turbine disk      manufacturing technology      3D printing powder      high-throughput experiment     
Received:  17 April 2019     
ZTFLH:  TG132.32,TG113  
Fund: Supported by National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFB0305800,2016YFB0701404);National Natural Science Foundation of China(51434007);Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China /Horizon 2020 China-European Union Aeronautical Science & Technology Cooperation Program(MJ-2015-H-G-104);UK Diamond Light Source(EE10597)
Corresponding Authors:  Liang ZHENG     E-mail:  liang.zheng@biam.ac.cn

Cite this article: 

ZHANG Guoqing,ZHANG Yiwen,ZHENG Liang,PENG Zichao. Research Progress in Powder Metallurgy Superalloys and Manufacturing Technologies for Aero-Engine Application. Acta Metall Sin, 2019, 55(9): 1133-1144.

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https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00119     OR     https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/Y2019/V55/I9/1133

Fig.1  Development of powder metallurgy (PM) superalloys
GenerationAlloyNiCoCrMoWAlTiNbHfTaCBZrVRef.
1stIN100Bal.18.512.53.2-5.04.3---0.070.020.040.75[5]
Merl76Bal.18.512.43.2-5.04.31.40.4-0.020.020.06-[5]
René95Bal.8.013.03.53.53.53.52.5--0.070.010.05-[5]
LC AstroloyBal.17.015.05.0-4.03.5---0.040.0250.04-[5]
Udimet 720Bal.14.716.03.01.252.55.0---0.0150.0180.038-[5]
2ndRené88DTBal.13.016.04.04.02.13.70.7--0.030.0150.03-[5]
N18Bal.15.511.56.5-4.34.3-0.5-0.020.015--[5]
3rdRené104/ME3Bal.20.613.03.82.13.43.70.9-2.400.050.0250.05-[15]
LSHRBal.20.812.72.74.43.53.51.5-1.70.0240.0280.049-[15]
Alloy10Bal.15.010.22.86.23.73.81.9-0.900.030.0300.10-[15]
NR3Bal.14.711.83.3-3.75.5-0.33-0.0240.0130.052-[15]
RR1000Bal.18.515.05.0-3.03.6-0.52.000.0270.0150.06-[16]
Table 1  Chemical compositions of typical powder metallurgy superalloys[5,15,16] (mass fraction / %)
AlloyCCoBZrCr+W+MoAl+Ti+Nb+HfNi
FGH41030.0615.50.020.0119.59.5Bal.
FGH41040.0615.00.020.0218.510.5Bal.
FGH40970.0416.00.0150.01518.510.0Bal.
Table 2  Main chemical compositions of FGH4103, FGH4104 and FGH4097 PM superalloys (mass fraction / %)
Fig.2  Microstructures of FGH4103 (a), FGH4104 (b) and FGH4097 (c) PM superalloys
AlloyT / ℃σb / MPaσ0.2 / MPaδ / %Ψ / %
FGH410325151311561515
FGH410425163412191719
FGH409725150010502219
FGH4104700150011401917
FGH4097700128010102122
FGH4103750128010501921
FGH4104750135011101014
FGH409775012009802425
FGH410380011209851818
Table 3  Tensile properties of of FGH4103, FGH4104 and FGH4097 PM superalloys

Alloy

Stress rupture strength / MPaLCF strength (f=1 Hz) / MPa
650 ℃, 100 h750 ℃, 100 h650 ℃
FGH410311407501100 (2×104 cyc)
FGH410411106201120 (2×104 cyc)
FGH409710206801000 (0.5×104 cyc)
Table 4  Stress rupture and low cycle fatigue (LCF) strengths of FGH4103, FGH4104 and FGH4097 PM superalloys
Fig.3  Schematic of vacuum induction melting gas atomization (VIGA) powder manufacturing furnace
Fig.4  Gas-only flow field velocity magnitude profile and curve in axis
Fig.5  Simulation of liquid disintegration process(a) primary disintegration (b) secondary disintegration
Fig.6  Particle trajectory of powder with different particle diameters
Fig.7  Schematic of particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiment (a) and contour of velocity vector (b)
Fig.8  Droplet size with different atomized pressures (water atomization physical simulation)
Fig.9  Relationship between gas content and superalloy powder particle size
Fig.10  Morphology of Ar gas atomized superalloy powders
Fig.11  Macrostructure of dual-alloy auxiliary power unit (APU) turbine wheel
Fig.12  Calculated and experimentally measured creep test behavior at 700 ℃ for FGH96 alloy
Fig.13  High throughput experiment of microstructure evolution from powder to bulk superalloy (a) [52] and fast characterization of minor phase change by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (b) (Tcentre——centre temperature, Tγ'——γ' solvus temperature, TIM——incipient melting temperature, TL——liquidus temperature)
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