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Acta Metall Sin  2019, Vol. 55 Issue (9): 1095-1114    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00078
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Recent Development of Nickel-Based Disc Alloys andCorresponding Cast-Wrought Processing Techniques
ZHANG Beijiang(),HUANG Shuo,ZHANG Wenyun,TIAN Qiang,CHEN Shifu
High Temperature Materials Research Division, Central Iron & Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081, China
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Abstract  

The newly developed high-performance cast-wrought alloys have been widely applied in advanced turbine engines in recent years, particularly, served as turbine disc and compressor disc. The significant breakthrough has been made on the processing techniques for these highly alloyed disc alloys, including the triple-melting of the large-scale ingots with the diameter more than 500 mm, conversion of the large-scale ingot and the processing of fine-grained billets with the diameter more than 300 mm, customization of the microstructures and properties of disc forgings. The chemical compositions can be well controlled on vacuum arc remelting (VAR) ingots, including the ultra-low carbon content lower than 0.011%. The white spots and freckles have been found to be the primary defects on large-scale VAR ingots, which is triggered by the improper re-melting parameters. The metallurgical defects can be identified on fine-grained billets via supersonic inspection. The investigations have shown that the existence of the micro-duplex structure opens a window for the processing of these highly alloyed disc alloys with up to more than 60% mass fraction of precipitates. Via a multicycle thermal-mechanical processing technique, the hot working process of the disc alloys, can be achieved in a cost-effective way, and the un-recrystallized grains can also be eliminated efficiently. The above-mentioned techniques have greatly promoted the development and application of the high-performance disc alloys, such as GH4065, GH4720, GH4175 and GH4975, et al. These alloys can provide a promising solution of high reliability combined with low life cycle cost for military and commercial gas turbines. Nonetheless, in order to maximize the advantageous of cast-wrought disc alloys on reliability and cost-effective ratio, the comprehensive understanding about the prevention and identification of metallurgical defects, increase in the yield rate of materials during conversion, processing of fine-grained billets and dual-property disc forgings, is still needed.

Key words:  Ni-based superalloy      disc forging      chemical composition      processing      microstructure and property     
Received:  22 March 2019     
ZTFLH:  TG146.1  
Fund: Supported by National Science and Technology Major Project(2017-VI-0015-0087,2017-VI-0018-0090)
Corresponding Authors:  Beijiang ZHANG     E-mail:  bjzhang@cisri.com.cn

Cite this article: 

ZHANG Beijiang,HUANG Shuo,ZHANG Wenyun,TIAN Qiang,CHEN Shifu. Recent Development of Nickel-Based Disc Alloys andCorresponding Cast-Wrought Processing Techniques. Acta Metall Sin, 2019, 55(9): 1095-1114.

URL: 

https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00078     OR     https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/Y2019/V55/I9/1095

Fig.1  Development of cast-wrought disc superalloys abroad
AlloyMass fraction ofMass fraction of γ′γ-γ′ mismatch at 760 ℃γ′ solvus temperature
Al+Ti+Nb / %at 760 ℃ / %%
GH45865.029-0.3551072
GH47427.837+0.2731095
GH40656.636-0.0161113
GH40798.546+0.1311132
GH47207.543+0.0881158
GH41569.053+0.0031165
GH41519.954-0.1281171
GH417511.055-0.0801176
GH49759.264-0.0791210
Table 1  Characteristic parameters of highly alloyed cast-wrought disc alloys[3,4,5,8,14,23,24,25,26,27,28]
Fig.2  Relationship between stress rupture property and the concentration of alloying elements of disc alloys
Fig.3  Relationship between formation temperature of MC carbides and C content in alloy GH4065(a) phase diagram (b) details of MC carbides formation temperature
Fig.4  Schematic of standard processing route of cast-wrought disc forgings and associated key techniques (VIM—vacuum induction melting, ESR—electroslag remelting, VAR—vacuum arc remelting)
Fig.5  Clean white spot identified on a GH4586 disc forging produced via double-melting technique(a) macro-scale morphology (b) optical image
Fig.7  Coarse-grained macrostructures on billet induced by improper conversion techniques(a) low-magnification (b) residual as-cast structures
Fig.8  Super-plasticity of γ+γ' microduplex of disc alloys with various γ' mass fractions (deformed at the temperature of 100 ℃ lower than γ' solvus temperature and the strain rate of 1×10-3 s-1)
Fig.6  A freckle identified on the billet of alloy GH4065 with diameter of 300 mm(a~c) macro-scale morphologies of the freckle under various conditions of incident light ((a, b) transverse, (c)longitudinal)(d~h) EPMA mappings of alloying elements distribution
Fig.9  Numerical simulation of the trigger and growth of freckles during the VAR re-melting process (f—solid fraction in mushy zone)(a) f map (b, c) solute distribution (d) macro-scale flow pattern of liquid phase in the mushy zone
Fig.10  Morphological evolution of freckles during conversion and their supersonic identification on GH4065 billets(a) a freckle in coarse-grained structure(b, c) morphologies of the freckle in γ+γ' microduplex(d) C-scan plot showing a freckle on fine-grained billet indicated by arrow (Color scale is for C-scan map)
Fig.11  Discrete dirty white spot on GH4065 disc forging identified by supersonic inspection(a) macro-scale morphology of white spot (blue arrow) and stringers (red arrows)(b) optical image of stringers (indicated by red arrows in Fig.11a)(c) C-scan plot showing a defect on disc forging(d~k) EPMA analyses identified the stringer as inclusions
Fig.12  Interaction between dislocations and γ' precipitates during hot working process of disc alloys(a) dens dislocations induced by strain ageing effect in alloy GH4586(b) low dislocation density in γ+γ' microduplex in alloy GH4065(c) HRTEM image of γ-γ' interface in Fig.12b
Fig.13  Special γ-γ' configurations developed during hot working process of alloy GH4065 due to the mechanism of strain induced discontinuous precipitation of γ' phase(a) original structure in single austenite region(b) fine and dispersed γ' precipitate during deformation in two-phase region(c, d) optical and SEM images of discontinuous precipitated γ', respectively(e, f) EBSD phase map and low angle misorientation (5°), respectively
Fig.14  Hot working plasticity of alloy GH4065 characterized by percent area reduction of tension tests(a) as-cast structures after solutioning treatment (b) γ+γ' microduplex (c) schematic of original specimen
Fig.15  Morphologies of γ+γ' microduplex of disc alloys with various γ' mass fractions during superplastic deformation at the temperature of 100 ℃ lower than γ' solvus temperature (given in Table 1) and strain rate of 1×10-3 s-1(a) GH4065 (b) GH4720 (c) GH4175 (d) GH4975
Fig.16  Large-scale disc forgings and the macrostructural homogeneity of alloy GH4065(a) compressor blisk and low-pressure turbine disc(b) macrostructure of disc forging
Fig.17  As-solutioning microstructures of the full-scale disc forgings optical images of alloy GH4065 (a, b) and GH4175 (c), TEM image of dislocation free γ+γ' microduplex in Fig.17a (d), TEM images of small un-recrystallized grains indicated by arrows in Fig.17b (e, f)
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