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Acta Metall Sin  2016, Vol. 52 Issue (4): 403-409    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2015.00460
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Yutuo ZHANG1,2,Cong LI1,2,Pei WANG2(),Dianzhong LI2
1 College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang 110159, China
2 Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
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9Ni steel has been widely used in liquid natural gas tanks and pipelines because of its excellent toughness at low temperature after quenching, larmellarizing and tempering heat treatment. Recently, in the cryogenic field it is used in some forgings, which have a strict demanding on the strength of this material. In order to clarify the relationship between the strength and the reversed austenite in the 9Ni steel after different temperature tempering, a systematic investigation on the amount of reversed austenite, deformation induced phase transformation (DIPT) of reversed austenite and its influence on the mechanical properties of 9Ni steel has been carried out by dilatometer, in situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction, XRD and TEM. The experimental results indicated that the amount of reversed austenite showed a parabolic trend with increase of tempering temperature and obtained the highest value after 600 ℃ tempering. And the DIPT of reversed austenite occurred after yielding during uniaxial tension test. This phenomenon induced that the yield strength of the experimental steel decreased to a minimum value after 600 ℃ tempering, and then, the value increased with further the increase of tempering temperature. However, the tensile strength of experimental steel increased with the increase of tempering temperature and reached the maximum after 640 ℃ tempering, because almost all of the reversed austenite transforms to martensite before necking.

Key words:  9Ni steel      in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction      tensile property      reversed austenite      deformation induced phase transformation     
Received:  30 August 2015     
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51201167)

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Fig.1  Microstructures of 9Ni steel after quenching and larmellarizing (a) and followed by tempering at 560 ℃ (b), 580 ℃ (c), 600 ℃ (d) and 640 ℃ (e)
Fig.2  Variation of volume fraction of reversed austenite in 9Ni steel with different tempering temperatures
Fig.3  Variation of strength of 9Ni steel with tempering temperatures during room temperature uniaxial tensile test
Fig.4  Variation of volume fraction of reversed austenite with engineering stress in 9Ni steel during in situ tensile test
Fig.5  Variations of work-hardening exponent and volume fraction of reversed austenite with true strain in 9Ni steel during in situ tensile test
Fig.6  Bright-field (a, d, e), dark-field (b) TEM images and SAED patterns (c, f) of 9Ni steel before (a~c) and after applied stresses to 500 MPa (d) and 700 MPa (e, f)
Fig.7  XRD spectrum of 9Ni steel after quenching and larmellarizing
Fig.8  Dilatometric curve of 9Ni steel after quenching and larmellarizing (ΔL—length change, Ac1—phase transition start temperature, Ac3—phase transition finish temperature)
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