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Acta Metall Sin  2015, Vol. 51 Issue (5): 519-526    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2014.00591
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Zhisheng WANG1,Xiang CHEN1,2(),Yanxiang LI1,2,Huawei ZHANG1,2,Yuan LIU1,2
1 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
2 Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
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Copper die-casting die steel is usually used in severe rugged environment. Liquid metal flows with high temperature and high pressure during injection and provides rapid filling of the die cavity. The copper die-casting steel should has excellent combination of the properties of high toughness, wear resistance, hardness, thermal fatigue resistance, oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance at high temperature for the cavity surface of die-casting die suffers high pressure, scour, erosion and thermal shock. A new kind of copper alloy die-casting die steel with pure austenitic matrix was conducted in this work, wherein the boride with high thermal stability and high hardness distributes in the austenitic matrix. The mechanical properties of copper alloy die-casting die steel at high temperature of 850 ℃ were studied using dynamic thermal-mechanical simulation testing machine. The thermal fatigue behavior of die steel at room temperature to 800 ℃ was performed using self-restraint Uddeholm thermal fatigue test method, and the depth extension status of surface thermal fatigue cracks and cross-sectional cracks in die steel thermal fatigue specimens was measured using stereo microscope and SEM. The effects of B content on the mechanical properties at room temperature and high temperature and on the thermal fatigue resistance were evaluated. The experimental results showed that boride distributes in austenitic matrix in the form of M2B-type boride (M represents Fe, Cr or Mn) after adding B in the tested steels, and the comprehensive performances of steel at high temperatures were effectively improved, the hardness of the steel at room temperature increased from 200 HV to 302 HV, the tensile yield strength at 850 ℃ increased from 144.3 MPa to 190.3 MPa, and the compressive yield strength increased from 139.7 MPa to 167.9 MPa. Evaluation of the degree of heat checking on 300 cyc of thermal fatigue testing at room temperature to 800 ℃ showed that the die steel containing B was rating 2~3, much better than rating 7~8 of electroslag remelting ESR-H13 steel for comparison, which mainly because the thermal fatigue cracks were blunted or deflected by boride, and then the cracks spread as scattering shapes was avoided.

Key words:  B      die-casting die steel      thermal fatigue property      copper alloy      die-casting     
Received:  30 October 2014     
Fund: National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.50974080)

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Steel C B Cr Mn Si Ni Mo Cu V P S Fe
3Cr10Mn7Ni6SiCu 0.27 - 9.76 6.48 0.57 6.22 - 0.43 - 0.012 0.013 Bal.
3Cr10Mn7Ni6SiCuB0.7 0.29 0.65 9.86 6.71 1.17 6.06 - 0.49 - 0.012 0.010 Bal.
ESR-H13 0.39 - 5.11 0.47 1.01 - 1.29 - 0.93 0.009 0.005 Bal.
Table 1  Chemical compositions of tested steels (mass fraction/%)
Fig.1  Results of simulation by JMatPro for 3Cr10Mn7Ni6SiCu steel
Fig.2  Schematic of thermal fatigue specimen (unit: mm)
Fig.3  SEM images of tested steels 3Cr10Mn7Ni6SiCu (a) and 3Cr10Mn7Ni6SiCuB0.7 (b), and EDS of point 1 (c) and point 2 (d) shown in Fig.3b
Fig.4  Binarized images (a, c, e) and surface cracking (b, d, f) of tested steels 3Cr10Mn7Ni6SiCu (a, b), 3Cr10Mn7Ni6SiCuB0.7 (c, d) and ESR-H13 (e, f) after thermal fatigue testing for 300 cyc from room temperature to 800 ℃
Steel Rm MPa Rp0.2 MPa A % Z % Rp0.2/ Rm Rmc MPa Rpc0.2 MPa Rpc0.2/ Rmc
3Cr10Mn7Ni6SiCu 181.0 144.3 40.9% 53.3% 0.80 257.1 139.7 0.54
3Cr10Mn7Ni6SiCuB0.7 196.7 190.3 39.2% 48.8% 0.97 287.4 167.9 0.58
ESR-H13 130.0 90.0 50.4% 77.3% 0.69 184.0 116.0 0.63
Table 2  Mechanical properties of tested steels at high temperature of 850 ℃
Fig.5  Cracks propagation on the cross-section of 3Cr10Mn7Ni6SiCu with vertical propagation after thermal fatigue testing for 300 cyc from room temperature to 800 ℃

(a, b) horizontal propagation (c) longitudinal propagation (d) scattering propagation

Fig.6  Cracks propagation on the cross-section of 3Cr10Mn7Ni6SiCuB0.7 with crack blunted (a, c, d) and crack deflected (b, c, d) by boride after thermal fatigue testing for 300 cyc from room temperature to 800 ℃
Fig.7  OM image of 3Cr10Mn7Ni6SiCuB0.7 after thermal fatigue testing for 300 cyc from room temperature to 800 ℃
Fig.8  XRD spectra of 3Cr10Mn7Ni6SiCuB0.7 before and after thermal fatigue testing for 300 cyc from room temperature to 800 ℃ (Inset show the high magnified curve)
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