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金属学报  2020, Vol. 56 Issue (1): 36-52    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00129
  综述 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 |
激光增材制造成型马氏体时效钢研究进展
谭超林1,2,周克崧1,2(),马文有2,曾德长1
1. 华南理工大学材料科学与工程学院  广州 510640
2. 广东省新材料研究所现代材料表面工程技术国家工程实验室  广州 510651
Research Progress of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Maraging Steels
TAN Chaolin1,2,ZHOU Kesong1,2(),MA Wenyou2,ZENG Dechang1
1. School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
2. National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Materials Surface Engineering Technology, Guangdong Institute of New Materials, Guangzhou 510651, China
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摘要: 

本文较全面地综述了国内外激光增材制造成型马氏体时效钢(MS)的研究和应用现状。分析了选区激光熔化(SLM)制备MS特有的优势,并从SLM成型MS参数与性能优化、成型各向异性、时效强化机理、梯度材料和模具应用5个方面进行了系统介绍。研究表明,SLM成型MS的工艺窗口较宽,易获得成型致密度>99%的试样;经过激光和热处理工艺参数优化后,其力学性能可达标准锻件水平。MS时效强化遵循Orowan位错绕过机制,成型方向对MS力学性能影响较小。此外,SLM能够制备高结合强度MS基梯度材料(MS-Cu和MS-H13等)零件,为制备梯度材料功能件开辟了新途径。最后,介绍了SLM成型MS面向随形冷却模具的应用,并提出了今后的研究展望。

关键词 选区激光熔化马氏体时效钢激光参数梯度材料随形冷却    
Abstract

Additive manufacture is recognized as a world-altering technology which triggered a world-wide intensive research interest. Here the research progress and application of the laser additive manufacturing maraging steel (MS) are systematically outlined. The advantages of selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacture of MS is emphasized. The processing parameter and properties optimizations, build orientation based anisotropies, age hardening mechanism, gradient materials, and applications in die and moulds of SLM-processed MS are reviewed in detail. Achieving relative density of >99% in SLM-processed MS is effortless, owing to the wide SLM process window of MS. Mechanical properties of MS produced with optimized SLM processing parameters and post heat treatments are comparable to traditionally wrought parts. The build orientation hardly affects the property anisotropies of MS. The age hardening behaviour in MS follows Orowan bowing mechanism. MS-based gradient multi-materials (such as MS-Cu, MS-H13, etc.) with high bonding strength are fabricated by SLM, which provides a new approach to produce high-performance functionally gradient multi-materials components. Lastly, the application in conformal cooling moulds of SLM-processed MS is elucidated, and future research interests related to MS are also proposed.

Key wordsselective laser melting    maraging steel    laser parameter    gradient material    conformal cooling
收稿日期: 2019-04-24     
ZTFLH:  TG665  
基金资助:广东省科学院建设国内一流研究机构行动专项资金项目(2019GDASYL-0502006);广东省科学院建设国内一流研究机构行动专项资金项目(2019GDASYL-0402004);广东省科学院建设国内一流研究机构行动专项资金项目(2019GD-ASYL-0402006);广东省科学院建设国内一流研究机构行动专项资金项目(2019GDASYL-0501009);广东省科学院建设国内一流研究机构行动专项资金项目(2017A070701027);广州市对外科技合作计划项目(201907010008);广东省工业技术研究院(广州有色金属研究院)项目(2014B070705007)
通讯作者: 周克崧     E-mail: kszhou2004@163.com
Corresponding author: Kesong ZHOU     E-mail: kszhou2004@163.com
作者简介: 谭超林,男,1991年生,博士

引用本文:

谭超林,周克崧,马文有,曾德长. 激光增材制造成型马氏体时效钢研究进展[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(1): 36-52.
Chaolin TAN, Kesong ZHOU, Wenyou MA, Dechang ZENG. Research Progress of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Maraging Steels. Acta Metall Sin, 2020, 56(1): 36-52.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00129      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2020/V56/I1/36

图1  SLM设备和成型工艺参数示意图[16]
图2  SLM制备的马氏体时效钢(MS)试样典型显微组织的OM和SEM像[43]
MachineP / Wvs / (mm·s-1)h / μmt / μmEv / (J·mm-3)Density / %Ref.
EOS M280804005040100>99[45]
EOS M290285960110406799.9[16]
Concept laser M2-60010530-99.5[38]
Dimetal-100160400703516399.3[50]
Concept laser M31051501253018799.2[51]
-1001801403013299.7[52]
Renishaw AM250200-904060~77About 99.0[53]
Matsuura Avance-25300700120507199.8[54]
Concept laser M2180600105309599.5[55]
表1  SLM成型18Ni300马氏体时效钢工艺参数及性能[16,38,45,50,51,52,53,54,55]
AF or HTedUTS / MPaYS / MPaEl / %HardnessRef.
SLM AF106590111.530 HRC[46]
840 ℃+490 ℃, 6 h99818954.552 HRC
SLM AF1165±7915±712.4±0.135~36 HRC[16]
490 ℃, 6 h2014±91967±113.3±0.153~55 HRC
840 ℃+490 ℃, 6 h1943±81882±145.6±0.152~54 HRC
SLM AF1178-7.9381 HV[49]
840 ℃+480 ℃, 6 h2164-2.5646 HV
SLM AF1290±1141214±9913.3±1.9396 HV[51,56]
480 ℃, 5 h2217±731998±321.6±0.3635 HV
SLM AF1192-835 HRC[52]
SLM AF1100105012.1About 420 HV[38]
490 ℃, 6 h180017204.5About 600 HV
SLM AF1125-10.4About 400 HV[54]
820 ℃+460 ℃, 6 h2033-5.3618 HV
SLM AFAbout 1190-About 12.5About 350 HV[57]
490 ℃, 3 hAbout 1860-About 5.6About 560 HV
SLM AF1188±10915±136.2±1.3-[58]
460 ℃, 8 h2017±581957±431.5±0.2-
600 ℃, 10 min1659±1191557±1401.6±0.1-
Wrought1000~1170760~8956~1535 HRC[56]
Wrought aged1930~20501862~20005~752 HRC[4,59]
表2  SLM成型18Ni300马氏体时效钢热处理工艺及其力学性能[4,16,38,46,49,51,52,54,56,57,58,59]
图3  不同时效处理工艺对拉伸强度和断裂延伸率的影响[60]
图4  扫描策略对组织织构的影响[55,61]
SLM directionSpecimenUTS / MPaYS / MPaEl / %HardnessRef.
HorizontalSLM AF1165±7915±712.4±0.134.8 HRC[43]
(X-Y plane)SLM aged2014±91967±113.3±0.154.6 HRC[43]
VerticalSLM AF1085±19920±2411.3±0.335.7 HRC[43]
(Z-X or Z-Y)SLM aged1942±311867±222.8±0.152.9 HRC[43]
HorizontalSLM AF1100105012.1About 420 HV[38]
SLM aged180017204.5About 600 HV[38]
VerticalSLM AF1205108012.0-[38]
SLM aged185017505.1-[38]
HorizontalSLM AF1260±79768±2913.9±2.0-[55]
SLM aged2216±1561953±873.1±0.4-[55]
VerticalSLM AF1325±51825±9614.0±1.5-[55]
SLM aged2088±1901833±653.2±0.6-[55]
HorizontalSLM AF1174106915.7382 HV[60]
SLM aged1811172910.5552 HV[60]
45°SLM AF11449916.8327 HV[60]
SLM aged180217149.9558 HV[60]
VerticalSLM AF105789213.8375 HV[60]
SLM aged1816172310.1375 HV[60]
StandardWrought1000~1170760~8956~1535 HRC[56]
Wrought aged1930~20501862~20005~752 HRC[4,59]
表3  SLM成型18Ni300马氏体时效钢成型方向对力学性能的影响[4,38,43,55,56,59,60]
图5  MS时效处理后APT分析及采用传统方法和激光金属沉积(LMD)制备的MS试样时效处理后APT分析[42,63]
图6  SLM成型MS试样时效处理后TEM分析[43]

Model

Fiber laser energy

Build volumeScan speedBuild rate
mm×mm×mmm·s-1cm3·h-1
EOS M290400 W250×250×325Max. 7Max. 23
EOS M4001 kW400×400×400Max. 7Max. 30
M2 Cusing200 W or 400 W250×250×280Max. 7Max. 20
SLM250200 W or 400 W250×250×300Max. 7Max. 20
EOS M400-4400 W×4400×400×400Max. 7Max. 100
SLM 500HL400 W×2 & 1 kW×2500×280×325Max. 15Max. 70
SLM 280400 W & 1 kW280×280×350Max. 15Max. 35
表4  常用SLM设备的参数[70,71,72]
图7  SLM成型MS-Cu梯度材料过程示意图[73]
图8  SLM成型MS-Cu试样界面结合机理分析[73]
图9  SLM成型的随形冷却模具与传统冷却模具对比[79]
图10  基于SLM的复合技术成型的MS随形冷却模具
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