Please wait a minute...
金属学报  2019, Vol. 55 Issue (9): 1175-1184    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00126
  综述 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 |
高温合金涡轮叶片定向凝固过程数值模拟研究进展
许庆彦(),杨聪,闫学伟,柳百成
清华大学材料学院先进成形制造教育部重点实验室 北京 100084
Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
清华大学材料学院先进成形制造教育部重点实验室 北京 100084
Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
清华大学材料学院先进成形制造教育部重点实验室 北京 100084
Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
清华大学材料学院先进成形制造教育部重点实验室 北京 100084
Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Development of Numerical Simulation in Nickel-Based Superalloy Turbine Blade Directional Solidification
XU Qingyan(),YANG Cong,YAN Xuewei,LIU Baicheng
全文: PDF(16856 KB)   HTML
摘要: 

高温合金涡轮叶片被广泛应用于航空发动机与燃气轮机,数值模拟技术能优化和改进涡轮叶片定向凝固工艺,提高成品率。本文总结了国内外高温合金涡轮叶片定向凝固过程宏、微观数值模拟模型,介绍了其发展趋势。对高速凝固(HRS)和液态金属冷却(LMC) 2种工艺下高温合金叶片宏观温度场、介观晶粒组织与微观枝晶组织做了模拟仿真,对比分析了2种定向凝固工艺下的传热过程和微观组织演化规律。介绍了变抽拉速率工艺在高温合金定向凝固中的应用,以实际叶片作为算例,对比了常抽拉速率与优化的变抽拉速率对涡轮叶片温度场、晶粒组织的影响。结果表明,优化的变抽拉速率工艺能够改变上凸或者下凹的糊状区形状,得到平直的糊状区与平行的晶粒组织,有利于提升叶片高温力学性能。

关键词 高温合金数值模拟定向凝固涡轮叶片    
Abstract

Ni-based superalloy turbine blades have been widely used in aerospace and industrial engine. Numerical simulation techniques can optimize the superalloy directional solidification process and enhance the rate of finished products. This paper summarized the existing macroscopic and microscopic numerical models in the superalloy blade directional solidification process. Simulations have been done on the temperature field evolution, grain structure and dendrite morphology in typical HRS and LMC directional solidification conditions, and the resulting microstructure features were investigated. In particular, the application of varying withdrawal rate in directional solidification of the superalloy blade was introduced. And the advantages of the varying withdrawal rate technique were emphasized by comparing it with the constant withdrawal rate method. The simulation results indicate that by applying varying withdrawal rate, the convex or concave shape of the mushy zone can be change to flat shape, so that parallel columnar grains can be obtained with enhanced high-temperature performance of the turbine blade.

Key wordssuperalloy    numerical simulation    directional solidification    turbine blade
收稿日期: 2019-04-23     
ZTFLH:  TG132  
基金资助:国家科技重大专项项目(2017ZX04014001,2017-VII-0008-0101);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFB0701503);国家自然科学基金项目(51374137)
通讯作者: 许庆彦     E-mail: scjxqy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
Corresponding author: Qingyan XU     E-mail: scjxqy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
作者简介: 许庆彦,男,1971年生,教授,博士

引用本文:

许庆彦,杨聪,闫学伟,柳百成. 高温合金涡轮叶片定向凝固过程数值模拟研究进展[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1175-1184.
Qingyan XU, Cong YANG, Xuewei YAN, Baicheng LIU. Development of Numerical Simulation in Nickel-Based Superalloy Turbine Blade Directional Solidification. Acta Metall Sin, 2019, 55(9): 1175-1184.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00126      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2019/V55/I9/1175

图1  高速凝固(HRS)和液态金属冷(LMC)却定向凝固炉简化结构示意图
图2  HRS与LMC定向凝固条件下单晶试板温度场模拟结果
图3  恒定拉速与变拉速条件下叶片温度场模拟结果[31]
图4  单晶高温合金凝固过程自然对流模拟与雀斑缺陷预测
图5  HRS与LMC定向凝固条件下选晶过程晶粒组织模拟结果与实验结果对比
图6  变抽拉速率定向凝固条件下,涡轮叶片温度场与晶粒组织模拟结果
图7  定向凝固过程枝晶竞争生长过程相场模拟结果
图8  HRS和LMC定向凝固工艺下三维枝晶生长模拟结果[31]
[1] VersnyderF I, ShankM E. The development of columnar grain and single crystal high temperature materials through directional solidification [J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 1970, 6: 213
[2] GiameiA F, TschinkelJ G. Liquid metal cooling: A new solidification technique [J]. Metall. Trans., 1976, 7A: 1427
[3] YangX L,DongH B, WangW, , et al. Microscale simulation of stray grain formation in investment cast turbine blades [J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2004, A386: 129
[4] MaD X. Freckle formation during directional solidification of complex castings of superalloys [J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2016, 52: 426
[4] 马德新. 定向凝固的复杂形状高温合金铸件中的雀斑形成 [J]. 金属学报, 2016, 52: 426
[5] AvesonJ W, TennantP A, FossB J, , et al. On the origin of sliver defects in single crystal investment castings [J]. Acta Mater., 2013, 61: 5162
[6] ElliottA J, PollockT M. Thermal analysis of the bridgman and liquid-metal-cooled directional solidification investment casting processes [J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2007, 38A: 871
[7] BeckermannC, GuJ P, BoettingerW J. Development of a freckle predictor via Rayleigh number method for single-crystal nickel-base superalloy castings [J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2000, 31A: 2545
[8] RamirezJ C, BeckermannC. Evaluation of a Rayleigh-number-based freckle criterion for Pb-Sn alloys and Ni-base superalloys [J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2003, 34A: 1525
[9] GandinC A, DesbiollesJ L, RappazM, , et al. A three-dimensional cellular automation-finite element model for the prediction of solidification grain structures [J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 1999, 30A: 3153
[10] RappazM, GandinC A. Probabilistic modelling of microstructure formation in solidification processes [J]. Acta Metall. Mater., 1993, 41: 345
[11] XuQ Y, ZhangH, QiX, , et al. Multiscale modeling and simulation of directional solidification process of turbine blade casting with MCA method [J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2014, 45B: 555
[12] LiuS Z, LiJ R, TangD Z, , et al. Numerical simulation of directional solidification process of single crystal superalloys [J]. J. Mater. Eng., 1999, (7): 40
[12] 刘世忠, 李嘉荣, 唐定忠等. 单晶高温合金定向凝固过程数值模拟 [J]. 材料工程, 1999, (7): 40)
[13] PanD, XuQ Y, LiuB C. Modeling on directional solidification of superalloy blades with furnace wall temperature evolution [J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2010, 46: 294
[13] 潘 冬, 许庆彦, 柳百成. 考虑炉壁温度变化的高温合金叶片定向凝固过程模拟 [J]. 金属学报, 2010, 46: 294
[14] ZhangH, XuQ Y, SunC B, , et al. Simulation and experimental studies on grain selection behavior of single crystal superalloy: I. Starter block [J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2013, 49: 1508
[14] 张 航, 许庆彦, 孙长波等. 单晶高温合金螺旋选晶过程的数值模拟与实验研究: I.引晶段 [J]. 金属学报, 2013, 49: 1508
[15] ZhangH, XuQ Y, SunC B, , et al. Simulation and experimental studies on grain selection behavior of single crystal superalloy: II. Spiral part [J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2013, 49: 1521
[15] 张 航, 许庆彦, 孙长波等. 单晶高温合金螺旋选晶过程的数值模拟与实验研究: II.螺旋段 [J]. 金属学报, 2013, 49: 1521
[16] WangW, LeeP D, McLeanM. A model of solidification microstructures in nickel-based superalloys: Predicting primary dendrite spacing selection [J]. Acta Mater., 2003, 51: 2971
[17] LiJ J, WangZ J, WangY Q, , et al. Phase-field study of competitive dendritic growth of converging grains during directional solidification [J]. Acta Mater., 2012, 60: 1478
[18] WangJ C, GuoC W, LiJ J, , et al. Recent progresses in competitive grain growth during directional solidification [J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2018, 54: 657
[18] 王锦程, 郭春文, 李俊杰等. 定向凝固晶粒竞争生长的研究进展 [J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54: 657
[19] WarnkenN, MaD X, DrevermannA, , et al. Phase-field modelling of as-cast microstructure evolution in nickel-based superalloys [J]. Acta Mater., 2009, 57: 5862
[20] FangH, XueH, TangQ Y, , et al. Dendrite coarsening and secondary arm migration in the mushy zone during directional solidification [J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2019, 55: 664
[20] 方 辉, 薛 桦, 汤倩玉等. 定向凝固糊状区枝晶粗化和二次臂迁移的实验和模拟 [J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55: 664
[21] KermanpurA, RappazM, VarahramN, , et al. Thermal and grain-structure simulation in a land-based turbine blade directionally solidified with the liquid metal cooling process [J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2000, 31B: 1293
[22] CuiK, XuQ Y, YuJ, , et al. Radiative heat transfer calculation for superalloy turbine blade in directional solidification process [J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2007, 43: 465
[22] 崔 锴,许庆彦,于 靖等. 高温合金叶片定向凝固过程中辐射换热的计算 [J]. 金属学报, 2007, 43: 465
[23] YanX W, TangN, LiuX F, , et al. Modeling and simulation of directional solidification by LMC process for nickel base superalloy casting [J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2015, 51: 1288
[23] 闫学伟, 唐 宁, 刘孝福等. 镍基高温合金铸件液态金属冷却定向凝固建模仿真及工艺规律研究 [J]. 金属学报, 2015, 51: 1288
[24] YuanL, LeeP D. A new mechanism for freckle initiation based on microstructural level simulation [J]. Acta Mater., 2012, 60: 4917
[25] ChenY, BognoA A, XiaoN M, , et al. Quantitatively comparing phase-field modeling with direct real time observation by synchrotron X-ray radiography of the initial transient during directional solidification of an Al-Cu alloy [J]. Acta Mater., 2012, 60: 199
[26] ThévozP, DesbiollesJ L, RappazM. Modeling of equiaxed microstructure formation in casting [J]. Metall. Trans., 1989, 20A: 311
[27] KurzW, GiovanolaB, TrivediR. Theory of microstructural development during rapid solidification [J]. Acta Metall., 1986, 34: 823
[28] SteinbachI, PezzollaF. A generalized field method for multiphase transformations using interface fields [J]. Physica, 1999, 134D: 385
[29] EikenJ, B?ttgerB, SteinbachI. Multiphase-field approach for multicomponent alloys with extrapolation scheme for numerical application [J]. Phys. Rev., 2006, 73E: 066122
[30] YangC, XuQ Y, LiuB C. Primary dendrite spacing selection during directional solidification of multicomponent nickel-based superalloy: Multiphase-field study [J]. J. Mater. Sci., 2018, 53: 9755
[31] XuQ Y, YangC, ZhangH, , et al. Multiscale modeling and simulation of directional solidification process of Ni-based superalloy turbine blade casting [J]. Metals, 2018, 8: 632
[32] ElliottA J, PollockT M, TinS, , et al. Directional solidification of large superalloy castings with radiation and liquid-metal cooling: A comparative assessment [J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2004, 35A: 3221
[33] ZhangH, XuQ Y, LiuB C. Numerical simulation and optimization of directional solidification process of single crystal superalloy casting [J]. Materials, 2014, 7: 1625
[34] ZhuM F, TangQ Y, ZhangQ Y, , et al. Cellular automaton modeling of micro-structure evolution during alloy solidification [J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2016, 52: 1297
[34] 朱鸣芳, 汤倩玉, 张庆宇等. 合金凝固过程中显微组织演化的元胞自动机模拟 [J]. 金属学报, 2016, 52: 1297
[35] ShibutaY, SakaneS, TakakiT, , et al. Submicrometer-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nucleation and solidification from undercooled melt: Linkage between empirical interpretation and atomistic nature [J]. Acta Mater., 2016, 105: 328
[1] 刘金来, 叶荔华, 周亦胄, 李金国, 孙晓峰. 一种单晶高温合金的弹性性能的各向异性[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(6): 855-862.
[2] 刘继召, 黄鹤飞, 朱振博, 刘阿文, 李燕. 氙离子辐照后Hastelloy N合金的纳米硬度及其数值模拟[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(5): 753-759.
[3] 王波,沈诗怡,阮琰炜,程淑勇,彭望君,张捷宇. 冶金过程中的气液两相流模拟[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(4): 619-632.
[4] 马德新,王富,徐维台,徐文梁,赵运兴. 高温合金单晶铸件中条纹晶的形成机制[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(3): 301-310.
[5] 赵旭,孙元,侯星宇,张洪宇,周亦胄,丁雨田. 取向偏差对镍基单晶高温合金钎焊接头组织与力学性能的影响[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(2): 171-181.
[6] 刘兴军, 陈悦超, 卢勇, 韩佳甲, 许伟伟, 郭毅慧, 于金鑫, 魏振帮, 王翠萍. 新型钴基高温合金多尺度设计的研究现状与展望[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(1): 1-20.
[7] 吴静,刘永长,李冲,伍宇婷,夏兴川,李会军. 高Fe、Cr含量多相Ni3Al基高温合金组织与性能研究进展[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(1): 21-35.
[8] 杜金辉,吕旭东,董建新,孙文儒,毕中南,赵光普,邓群,崔传勇,马惠萍,张北江. 国内变形高温合金研制进展[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1115-1132.
[9] 毕中南,秦海龙,董志国,王相平,王鸣,刘永泉,杜金辉,张继. 高温合金盘锻件制备过程残余应力的演化规律及机制[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1160-1174.
[10] 胡斌,李树索,裴延玲,宫声凯,徐惠彬. <111>取向小角偏离对一种镍基单晶高温合金蠕变性能的影响[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1204-1210.
[11] 张国庆,张义文,郑亮,彭子超. 航空发动机用粉末高温合金及制备技术研究进展[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1133-1144.
[12] 张北江,黄烁,张文云,田强,陈石富. 变形高温合金盘材及其制备技术研究进展[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1095-1114.
[13] 李嘉荣,谢洪吉,韩梅,刘世忠. 第二代单晶高温合金高周疲劳行为研究[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1195-1203.
[14] 江河,董建新,张麦仓,姚志浩,杨静. 服役条件下镍基高温合金应力松弛微观机制[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1211-1220.
[15] 张军,介子奇,黄太文,杨文超,刘林,傅恒志. 镍基铸造高温合金等轴晶凝固成形技术的研究和进展[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1145-1159.