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金属学报  2019, Vol. 55 Issue (9): 1145-1159    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00088
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镍基铸造高温合金等轴晶凝固成形技术的研究和进展
张军1(),介子奇1,2,黄太文1,杨文超1,刘林1,傅恒志1
1. 西北工业大学凝固技术国家重点实验室 西安 710072
2. 西安工业大学材料与化工学院 西安 710021
Research and Development of Equiaxed Grain Solidification and Forming Technology for Nickel-Based Cast Superalloys
ZHANG Jun1(),JIE Ziqi1,2,HUANG Taiwen1,YANG Wenchao1,LIU Lin1,FU Hengzhi1
1. State Key Laborotory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
2. School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Xi'an Technological University, Xi'an 710021, China
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摘要: 

等轴晶镍基铸造高温合金具有制造成本低、中低温力学性能优异等优点,被广泛应用于航空航天等领域。航空发动机机匣是典型的中低温条件下使用的等轴晶高温合金铸件,结构复杂化、尺寸精确化和薄壁轻量化是其发展趋势,而精确成形和凝固组织的协同控制是实现这类铸件精密铸造的重大技术难题。与之相对应,对高温合金整体结构铸件的材料、铸造技术、组织控制和力学性能的要求也越来越高。本文结合近年来课题组承担的相关科研工作,从铸造高温合金的发展和应用、组织控制方法、计算模拟及新型工艺等方面,介绍了等轴晶镍基铸造高温合金及其凝固和成形技术的相关研究和进展。

关键词 镍基铸造高温合金等轴晶凝固成形晶粒细化计算模拟    
Abstract

Equiaxed grain cast superalloys are widely used in aeroengine and other fields due to their low manufacturing cost and excellent mechanical properties at medium and low temperatures. Aeroengine casing is a typical complex thin-walled equiaxed superalloy castings used at medium and low temperatures. The complex thin-walled superalloy investment castings with the complex structures, the accurate size and the lightweight are the key components for advanced aeroengines. The coordinated control of the precise forming and the solidification microstructure for these castings is very difficult. Correspondingly, the requirements for materials, casting technologies, structure controls and mechanical properties in superalloy integral structure castings are becoming increasingly higher. In this paper, the development and application of polycrystalline superalloys, solidification and forming, the simulations and the new technologies are reviewed.

Key wordsNi-based cast superalloy    equiaxed grain    solidification and forming    grain refinement    computation simulation
收稿日期: 2019-04-01     
ZTFLH:  TG21  
基金资助:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFB0701400、2017YFB0702900);国家自然科学基金项目(51631008、51690163、51771148);中央高校基本科研业务费项目(3102017ZY054、3102018JCC009)
通讯作者: 张军     E-mail: zhjscott@nwpu.edu.cn
Corresponding author: Jun ZHANG     E-mail: zhjscott@nwpu.edu.cn
作者简介: 张 军,男,1967年生,教授

引用本文:

张军,介子奇,黄太文,杨文超,刘林,傅恒志. 镍基铸造高温合金等轴晶凝固成形技术的研究和进展[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1145-1159.
Jun ZHANG, Ziqi JIE, Taiwen HUANG, Wenchao YANG, Lin LIU, Hengzhi FU. Research and Development of Equiaxed Grain Solidification and Forming Technology for Nickel-Based Cast Superalloys. Acta Metall Sin, 2019, 55(9): 1145-1159.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00088      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2019/V55/I9/1145

图1  浇注温度和微量元素对K4169高温合金流动性的影响[14]
图2  熔体过热温度对Ni-Cr-W高温合金结构因子的影响[30]
图3  熔体过热温度对高温合金熔体黏度和表面张力的影响[35]
图4  熔体过热温度对K4169高温合金形核过冷度的影响[38]
图5  熔体过热温度对K4169合金晶粒组织的影响[38]
图6  热控凝固示意图及对特征铸件组织的影响[14]
图7  不同工艺条件下IN100高温合金的宏观晶粒组织[60]
RefinerCrystal structurea / nmAlloyRef.
Co2AlO4fcc0.8130IN713, K4169[62]
NiAlTifccK4169, K403[63]
TiNfcc0.4187K403, K4169[64]
TiBfcc0.4187IN713, MAR-M246[65]
WO2fccNimonic[65]
Ni3Alfcc0.3561IN718, IN713[65]
NbCbcc0.4471IN718, IN713[65]
Ni-W-10Y2O3bcc1.060Ni(Fe)-W[66]
表1  高温合金细化剂[62,63,64,65,66]
图8  常规工艺和热控凝固条件下细化剂对晶粒组织的影响[68]
图9  化学细化剂与Ni晶粒之间的取向关系及其异质形核机制[69]
图10  相场模拟得到的950 ℃、300 MPa蠕变条件下γ'相的演化过程[91]
图11  相场模拟得到的950 ℃、300 MPa蠕变条件下的蠕变曲线[91]
图12  反重力低压惰性气体保护铸造工艺及其成形铸件[95]
图13  增材制造在高温合金中应用[103,104,105]
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