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Acta Metall Sin  2020, Vol. 56 Issue (9): 1239-1246    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2020.00019
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Effect of Electromagnetic Stirring on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TiB2 Particle-Reinforced Steel
ZHANG Lin1, GUO Xiao1,2, GAO Jianwen1, DENG Anyuan1, WANG Engang1()
1 Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
2 School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
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TiB2 is a promising strengthening phase in steels applying in lightweight transportation systems due to its high Young's modulus and low density. However, the density difference between TiB2 particles and matrix leads to segregation during solidification. TiB2 particle-reinforced steels were solidified with a vertical linear-type electromagnetic stirring device. The effects of electromagnetic stirring on the morphology and size distribution of TiB2 particles were studied. Vickers hardness, mechanical properties in the tensile test were also discussed. The results show that electromagnetic stirring effectively refined the primary TiB2 particles in the steel, and the average particle size decreased with the increase of exciting current. The particles distributed dispersively and the structure was more homogenous under a higher exciting current. Besides, the defects of crackle around particles were eliminated under high current. Electromagnetic stirring reduced the macrosegregation of TiB2 particle-reinforced steels, which decreased the hardness discrepancy in the ingot at various heights. A higher exciting current attributed to higher average hardness, and the steel reached a hardness of 275 HV under 350 A exciting current. The ultimate tensile strength and the strain at break were both enhanced by electromagnetic stirring, and reached 520.2 MPa and 8.5% respectively under an exciting current of 350 A. The refinement of particles was caused by the smashing process under a strong convection driven by the moving magnetic field, and the effect of electromagnetic force acting on the particles. The influence factors of electromagnetic force were analyzed, which show the force increases with increasing magnetic intensity, decreases with increasing temperature of melt, and increases with increasing particle size.

Key words:  electromagnetic stirring      TiB2 particle-reinforced steel      hardness      tensile strength     
Received:  13 January 2020     
ZTFLH:  TG142.1  
Fund: National Natural Science Foundation of China(51674083);Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline Innovation to Universities 2.0(BP0719037)
Corresponding Authors:  WANG Engang     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

ZHANG Lin, GUO Xiao, GAO Jianwen, DENG Anyuan, WANG Engang. Effect of Electromagnetic Stirring on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TiB2 Particle-Reinforced Steel. Acta Metall Sin, 2020, 56(9): 1239-1246.

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Fig.1  Maximum values of magnetic flux density at various distances from the surface of electromagnetic stirrer
Fig.2  XRD spectra of TiB2 particle-reinforced steel with and without electromagnetic stirring (EMS)
Fig.3  Microstructures of TiB2 particle-reinforced steel under magnetic field with various current intensities
Fig.4  Morphologies of TiB2 particles in ingots under various current intensities (a~d) and EDS of points 1 (e) and 2 (f) in Fig.4a
Fig.5  The sizes of primary TiB2 particles in ingots under magnetic field with various current intensities
Fig.6  Hardness distributions of ingots under EMS with various current intensities
Fig.7  Tensile strengthes (a) and typical stress-strain curves (b) of ingots under EMS with various current intensity
Fig.8  Schematic of driving effect of magnetic field (B) on the melt of Fe-TiB2 particle-reinforced steel (a), and α value change with melt temperature and particle size (b)
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