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Acta Metall Sin  2018, Vol. 54 Issue (2): 247-264    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00424
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Progress on Numerical Simulation of Vibration in the Metal Solidification
Shiping WU(), Rujia WANG, Wei CHEN, Guixin DAI
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
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The application of vibration technology to the metal solidification process can not only effectively improve the solidified structure and the performance of castings, but also have the advantages of low cost, energy saving and environmental protection. Therefore, the application of vibration technology in metal solidification has been extensively studied in experiments. However, due to the high temperature and opacity of the metal melt, hindering its measurement and observation, the mechanism how the vibration affects the solidification is not fully understood. Numerical simulation can provide the variation law of various parameters such as flow field, temperature field and stress field under vibration condition, which helps us understand the mechanism of vibration more thoroughly. Meanwhile, the numerical simulation of the influence of vibration on the solidification of metal melt has been much less systematically studied. This paper introduces the research progress of numerical simulation of vibration applied in metal solidification. The main vibration modes include ultrasonic vibration, mechanical vibration and pulsed electromagnetic vibration. The application mainly includes melt processing, filling, solidification, purification and ageing process of numerical simulation. The current research status of numerical simulation theory and technology of vibration applied in all aspects of casting was summarized systematically. Furthermore, the future research directions of numerical simulation of vibration in metal solidification process were prospected.

Key words:  vibration      ultrasonic vibration      mechanical vibration      pulsed electromagnetic vibration      numerical simulation     
Received:  12 October 2017     
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.51475120 and U1537201)

Cite this article: 

Shiping WU, Rujia WANG, Wei CHEN, Guixin DAI. Progress on Numerical Simulation of Vibration in the Metal Solidification. Acta Metall Sin, 2018, 54(2): 247-264.

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Fig.1  Modal analyses of L-shaped (a~c) and T-shaped (d~f) waveguide rods with lengths of 110 mm (a, d), 125 mm (b, e) and 135 mm (c, f)[32] (f—frequency)
Fig.2  Microstructures (a~c) and simulation results (d~e) of ingot under ultrasonic with power of 0 W (a, d), 200 W (b, e) and 240 W (c, f)[50]
Fig.3  Ultrasonic pressure amplitude distributions of 80 W ultrasound in the melt with depths of 0.15 m (a) and 0.23 m (b)[59]
Fig.4  Solidified morphologies of A356 castings with different riser volumes of 100% (a), 60% (b) and 0 (c) under applying ultrasonic[66]
Simulation content Simulation software Governing equation Constitutive equation Ref.
Modal analysis ANSYS Oscillation equation Hooke's law [30~33]
Acoustic flow ANSYS-FLUENT, PROCAST N-S equation Newton's law of viscous fluid [51,52,57]
Temperature field ANSYS-FLUENT, PROCAST Heat conduction equation Newton's law of viscous fluid [57]
Cavitation effect ANSYS-FLUENT Cavitation model Newton's law of viscous fluid [49,54]
Acoustic field COMSOL Wave equation Newton's law of viscous fluid [53,55,56]
Table 1  Applications of numerical simulation of ultrasonic vibration during the solidification of metal[30~33,49,51~57]
Fig.5  The filling process of dry sand[71]
(a) start filling (b) applying vibration (c) filling sand (d) finish filling
Fig.6  Filling process of liquid metal with vibration[77]
Simulation content Simulation software Governing equation Constitutive equation Ref.
Vibration moulding EDEM, 3DEC et al. Momentum equation Hooke's law [70~72]
Modal analysis ANSYS Oscillation equation Newton's law of viscous fluid [85~87]
Flow field FLOW-3D, ANSYS-FLUENT N-S equation Newton's law of viscous fluid [77~82]
Temperature field MAGMASOFT,
Heat conduction equation Newton's law of viscous fluid [88~92]
Table 2  Applications of numerical simulation of mechanical vibration during the solidification of metal[70~72,77~82,85~92]
Fig.7  Fluid patterns under pulsed magnetic field in rectangular samples with aspect ratios of 1.0 (a), 2.0 (b), 4.5 (c) and 5.5 (d) [106]
Simulation content Simulation software Governing equation Constitutive equation Ref.
Electromagnetic field ANSYS, Opera 3D Maxwell equation Newton's law of viscous fluid [95,99,107,112,115,117]
Flow field ANSYS-FLUENT N-S equation [95,97~101,104~106,
Newton's law of viscous fluid
Temperature field ANSYS-FLUENT Heat conduction equation Newton's law of viscous fluid [98,99,112]
Table 3  Applications of numerical simulation of pulsed electromagnetic vibration during the solidification of metal[95,97~101,104~109,112,115,117]
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