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Acta Metall Sin  2016, Vol. 52 Issue (10): 1222-1238    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2016.00346
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RESEARCH PROGRESS ON FRICTION STIR WELDING AND PROCESSING
Peng XUE,Xingxing ZHANG,Lihui WU,Zongyi MA()
Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
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Abstract  

This paper simply introduced the research progress in friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar materials, high melting point materials and Al matrix composites, thermal-field simulation, and friction stir processing (FSP), especially based on research results of the authors. Some hotspots like the key factor of FSW dissimilar materials and bonding mechanism on interface, microstructure evolution during FSW of steel and Ti alloys and tool development, microstructure and properties of FSW Al matrix composite joints and tool wear, heat resource model of thermal-field simulation and effect of FSW parameters on thermal-field, microstructure and properties of nano-composites and ultrafine-grained materials prepared by FSP, were summarized and discussed. At the same time, the further research and development direction in FSW are suggested.

Key words:  friction stir welding      friction stir processing      dissimilar material      high melting point material      Al matrix composite      thermal-field simulation     
Received:  01 August 2016     
ZTFLH:     
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.51301178 and 51331008)

Cite this article: 

Peng XUE, Xingxing ZHANG, Lihui WU, Zongyi MA. RESEARCH PROGRESS ON FRICTION STIR WELDING AND PROCESSING. Acta Metall Sin, 2016, 52(10): 1222-1238.

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https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/10.11900/0412.1961.2016.00346     OR     https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/Y2016/V52/I10/1222

Fig.1  OM images of friction stir welding (FSW) Al-Cu joint (a), SEM (b) and TEM (c) images of Al-Cu interface[24] (NZ—nugget zone)
Fig.2  Effect of welded location on joint formation of FSW Mg-steel[26](a) schematic illustration(b) steel on upper side(c) Mg on upper side
Fig.3  OM image show FSW joint of Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) and 7075Al alloy (a), and TEM image show fine grains and BMG particles near the BMG/7075Al alloy interface (b) (Inset shows diffraction pattern of zone A)[29]
Fig.4  SEM images of the nugget zone of S70C steel FSW joints at different welding parameters[39] (P—pearlite phase, M—martensite phase)(a) 200 r/min, 25 mm/min (b) 200 r/min, 400 mm/min (c) 400 r/min, 25 mm/min (d) 400 r/min, 100 mm/min
Fig.5  Macrostructure (a) and EBSD maps of base material (BM) (b), upper (zone 1 in Fig.5a) (c) and lower (zone 2 in Fig.5a) (d) part in nugget of FSW high nitrogen steel joint[50] (BM—base metal, HAZ—heat affected zone, TMAZ—thermal-mechanical affected zone, arrows in Fig.5c show the low angle grain boundaries)
Fig.6  Superplastic behavior and morphologies of NZ in FSW Ti-6Al-4V joint[67,77]
(a) variation of elongation with initial strain rate at different temperatures(b) tensile specimens pulled to failure at 925 ℃ at different strain rates(c) TEM and (d) OM images showing microstructures before and after being pulled to failure at 925 ℃ and 1×10-2 s-1
Fig.7  Photographs showing the polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) and W-Re tool designs used in the welding trials[80]
Fig.8  Evolution of tool wear in FSW of 20%Al2O3/6061Al (volume fraction) composite at 1000 r/min and travel speeds of 3 mm/s (a) and 9 mm/s (b) (Distances traversed by tool in meters are indicated in the images)[85]
Fig.9  Hardness profiles of 17%SiC/2009Al (volume fraction) joints at welding speeds of 50, 200 and 800 mm/min[91] (RS—retreating side, AS—advancing side)
Fig.10  Variation of transient temperature for rotational speed of 500 r/min (lines: simulation results, symbols: test data) [106]
(a) top surface (b) bottom surface
Fig.11  Comparison between calculated 370 ℃ temperature contours and tensile fracture locations of FSW 6061Al-T651 joint at different parameters[109,110]
(a) rotation rate (b) welding speed
Fig.12  TEM images of FSP-rolled CNT/2009Al composite[123] (FSP—friction stir processing, CNT—carbon nanotube)
(a) CNT distribution (b) HRTEM image of CNT/Al interface
Fig.13  True stress-strain curves (a, c) and comparison of various ultrafine-grained (b, d) of FSP Cu (a, b) and Cu-Al alloys (c, d) (ECAP—equal-channel angular pressing, CG—coarse grain, CR—cold rolling, DPD—dynamic plastic deformation, A—annealing, ED—electrolytic deposition, HPT—high-pressure torsin, SFE—stacking fault energy)
Fig.14  SEM micrographs of the damaged surfaces of CG Cu (a, b) and FSP ultrafine-grained Cu specimens (c, d)[135] (Δσ—stress amplitude, Nf—cycle to failure)
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