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Acta Metall Sin  2019, Vol. 55 Issue (1): 109-125    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00307
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Progress in High Throughput Fabrication and Characterization of Metal Matrix Composites
Xuexi ZHANG1, Zhong ZHENG1, Ying GAO2, Lin GENG1()
1 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
2 Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering, Beijing 100086, China
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The "material genetic engineering" plan, based on the large data, is to investigate the high throughput design, fabrication and characterization techniques with the aim to shift the material research from traditional mode to high throughput mode with low cost and fast response speed, and to accelerate the research and development of new materials and achieve the goal of "double reduction halves". As the metal matrix composites (MMCs) exhibit multi-components and a thermodynamically non-equilibrium state during fabrication, some key issues occur and need to be addressed including: (1) for high throughput fabrication, currently developed high throughput technologies based on thermodynamically equilibrium conditions, such as spray printing and multi-node diffusion methods, are not applicable for MMCs; (2) for high throughput characterization, there is a lack of multi- dimensional, field and scale acquisition technique for the composition, morphology, microstructure and property of MMCs. In order to solve these problems, the progress on the research and development of high throughput fabrication and characterization techniques of MMCs was reviewed, especially, in the field of gradient reinforced MMCs and their high throughput combination characterization methods, which may promote the application of high throughput fabrication and characterization techniques in MMCs. Finally, the bottlenecks and prospects in the high throughput fabrication and characterization of MM Cs are proposed.

Key words:  metal matrix composites (MMCs)      high throughput fabrication      high throughput characterization      gradient metal matrix composites (GMMCs)      research status     
Received:  03 July 2018     
ZTFLH:  TG457  
Fund: Supported by National Key Research and Development Program of China (No.2017YFB0703103)

Cite this article: 

Xuexi ZHANG, Zhong ZHENG, Ying GAO, Lin GENG. Progress in High Throughput Fabrication and Characterization of Metal Matrix Composites. Acta Metall Sin, 2019, 55(1): 109-125.

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Fig.1  Comparison of two kinds of material development modes
(a) traditional single-step mode (b) high throughput mode
Technique Application area Advantage Ref.
Co-deposition method High throughput preparation of multi-component alloys Precise control of composition and gradient distribution [4,33]
Discrete template coating Doping of epitaxial films with transition metals and synthesis of sulfuric semiconductor materials Uniform, controllable and wide span composition and unlimited number of components [4,5]
Continuous template coating Preparation of dielectric materials and study of multi-alloy phase diagrams Controllable component distribution and continuous linear distribution states [35,36]
Spray printing Preparing combined ceramic specimens Repeated delivery of multiple components in a fast and precise way [9~11]
Microfluidic structure method Preparation and characterization of trace amount of catalysts Fast response to stress, helpful in conducting efficient characterization [37~39]
Multiple diffusion nodes Drawing three element phase diagrams and quickly screening materials Gaining alloys with gradient composition changes [6~8]
Microelectromechani-cal structure Studying mechanical properties and transformation enthalpies of alloys Quickly examine many samples, high compatibility with high-throughput experiments [16,17,21]
Chemical bath deposition Preparation of array film materials High efficiency for films, suitable for multi-component systems [40]
Magnetron sputtering Preparing film samples with various elements and contents High efficiency in preparing multi-component films [14]
Multi-flow pulse laser deposition High-throughput synthesis of monolayer and multilayer thin films Composite films have uniform composition and high performance [41]
Direct atomization of oligomers High throughput preparation of nano-scale hybrid membranes Low defect density in nano hybrid membranes and high fabrication efficiency [42]
Cooling rate controlling Studying correlation between cooling rate and properties of polycrystalline nickel based alloys High efficiently characterizing the correlation between microstructures and properties [43]
High throughput sintering diffusion Synthesis of magnetic materials Study of the new phases and equilibrium phases in alloys [44]
Linear friction welding Fabrication of alloys with gradient element distribution state Establishing the relationship among element content, microstructure and properties [45]
Focused ion beam machining Any area of interest can be collected in many kinds of materials Preparing micron- or nano-samples for direct analysis of microstructure and properties [46]
Laser additive manufacturing Preparing alloys, composites and micron- or nano-structured materials High precision in dimensions and wide range of application [47~50]
Table 1  High throughput preparation techniques, applications and advantages in metal materials[4~11,14,16,17,21,33,35~50]
Method Application area Ref.
Selective laser cladding Creation of gradient component distribution in Si/Al composites by tailoring vaporization of Al under laser and unidirectional solidification under external magnetic fields [12,13]
Centrifugal casting Ni powders of various sizes were distributed in Al2O3 under centrifugal process of the mixed slurry [51]
Uniaxial hot pressing Creation of gradient distribution of density, hardness, porosity and pore size in Al2O3/C composites by inhomogeneous temperature distribution during hot pressing [52]
Laminating Preparing laminated Al composite materials with 2%, 4% and 6% (volume fraction) SiC particles via hot pressing [53]
Positioning impregnation Preparing Ti3SiC2/SiC composites with graded components by hot pressing and impregnation at high temperature [54]
Table 2  High throughput preparation methods and applications in metal matrix composites (MMCs)[12,13,51~54]
Fig.2  SEM images of interface pillars before (a~c) and after (d~f) compressive deformation in a SiCp/Al composite[57]
(a, d) diameter 2.2 μm (b, e) diameter 1.0 μm (c, f) diameter 0.5 μm
Fig.3  Preparation of graphene gradient distributed graphene-Al composite powder compacts by self-assembly method
(a) schematic of the preparation setup
(b) gradient distribution of graphene in the powder compact
(c) graphene on an Al powder (GO—graphene oxide)
Fig.4  Processing and microstructure of GNP/Al composite wires prepared by multistep drawing (GNP—graphene nano-platelet)[59]
Fig.5  Preparation schematic of the composite wires by hot extrusion and drawing using layered MMCs
Fig.6  SEM images of the network structure in TiCp/Ti6Al4V composite with increasing magnifications from (a) to (d) (Inset shows a honeycomb structure)[60]
Fig.7  High throughput fabrication technique of network titanium composites by powder metallurgy
(a) 32 samples in a composite layer separated by soft graphite paper
(b) multi-composite layers separated by hard graphite platelet
Fig.8  A high throughput technique for aluminum composites based on pressureless infiltration
(a) a unit in the composite array (b) multi-unit array (c) composite samples in the unit
Fig.9  Micro-sample arrays of a composite material fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB)
Technique Applicable area Reference
X-ray diffraction (XRD) Phase information [65]
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Surface roughness and three-dimensional image [66]
Scanning probe Characterizing electro-catalysts and electrodes with gradient component distribution [67~69]
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Quantitative analysis of surface compositions and functional groups [70,71]
Secondary ion mass spectroscopy
Qualitative analysis of the surface compositions (acting as supplement of X-ray photoelectron spectrum using molecular ion segment spectrum) [70,71]
In situ XRD The evolution of the crystal structure in the stress field, temperature field and combination of these fields [72,73]
X-ray absorption near edge spectrum High resolution characterization of the large volume 2D and 3D morphologies (tens of nanometers) and chemical compositions [74,75]
Neutron diffraction technique Three dimensional spatial distribution of texture evolution, microstructure and residual stress in bulk materials [76~78]
Decalescent microwave probe microscopy Characterization of electrical (superconductivity, conductivity, dielectric constant etc.) and magnetic (magnetic susceptibility and spin resonance etc.) properties [79,80]
Nano scanning calorimetry Characterization of the thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, heat capacity and phase transition temperature [21~23]
X-ray fluorescence technique Chemical composition, elemental analysis and identification [65]
Near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy Characterization of the element valence state [65]
Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy The absorbance characteristics and molecular conjugation analysis [31]
Infrared emission imaging Screening organic and inorganic materials and hydrogen storage metal materials [81]
Mass spectrometry Mass ratio analysis and compound/molecular identification [82]
Gas chromatography Separation and identification of the complex [83]
Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization Study of the spectrum and molecular rotation information of atoms and small molecules [31]
In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy Characterization of the chemical evolution [74,84]
In situ X-ray binding mass spectrometry Characterization of the thermal stability [74]
Cantilever beam array technology Thermomechanical behavior analysis of thin films with wide component gradient [85]
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum Analyzing small stray magnetic field and relaxation phenomena of small magnets [86,87]
Photoacoustic technology Identification and characterization of parallel catalytic products [88]
Table 3  Characterization techniques and applications for the microstructure of MMCs [21~23,31,65~88]
Technique Application area Reference
Ion beam analysis Automatic detection for abundant samples; promising for high throughput detection [89]
High throughput transmission technology Characterization of composition phases, development of new materials and construction of phase diagrams [25]
In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Simultaneous in-situ imaging and electrical measurement, and observation of grain growth process induced by electric current [90]
Differential aperture XRD technique Low X-ray energy, sub-micron size of the spot, fairly high spatial resolution, and useful for analyzing deformation microstructures [91]
Three dimensional XRD technique High spatial and angular resolutions, suitable for studying recrystallization growth process [24]
Automatic scanning nano-indentation technology Mechanical properties of small volume materials, including strength and modulus [18,85,92~94]
Optical microscopy combined with differential interference imaging Three-dimensional surface topography and height information at re-melting lines [26~28]
Laser induced fluorescence imaging technology High throughput in-situ screening with micron scale spatial resolution and millisecond time resolution [95]
Scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy Characterization of the element composition and crystal structure [96]
High throughput screening sensor A new high throughput characterization method for a variety of elements [97]
In-situ tensile combined with digital image correlation (DIC) Calculation of the local strain distribution using different strain images, with high spatial resolution and the stretching rate [29]
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with DIC Precise calculation of image gradients, strain and deformation fields [30]
Femtosecond pulse laser technology Imaging of the time domain thermal reflection for phase formation, with spatial resolution of 1 μm and test rate of 10000 pointsh-1 [15]
Micromechanical testing technology High throughput mechanical properties tests, potential for automatic micro area tests [16~20]
In-situ statistical distribution analysis technique High throughput screening and validation of material design, modification and optimization [98~101]
Multi-dimensional and multi-scale high throughput characterization Three-dimensional crystallographic orientation and reconstruction; material structures; three dimensional X-ray diffraction etc. [102]
Microwave microscopy combined with AFM High spatial resolution characterization of the dielectric/ferroelectric materials [103]
Micro area electrochemical measurement technology High positioning accuracy (resolution 50 nm) and automatic programming tests for high density composite material samples [33]
Table 4  High throughput characterizing techniques and applications of metal matrix composites (MMCs)[15~20,24~30,33,85,89~103]
Fig.10  Schematic of simultaneous characterization techniques for the microstructure, deformation and mechanical properties of layered MMCs (ND—normal direction, EBSD—electron backscattered diffraction[29]
Fig.11  Modified X-ray diffractometer and its application (CCD—charge coupled device)[104]
(a) geometric structure of X-ray beam
(b) structure of the XRD configuration in the invert space
(c) configuration diagram of the concurrent XRD
(d) diffraction intensity of [(SrTiO3)n/(SrTiO3)n]30 (n=12,14,?, 30) superlattice
Fig.12  In-situ characterization technique based on synchrotron radiation for electrode composites[105]
(a) in-situ time-resolved (TR) XRD (b) in-situ TR-XRD combined mass spectroscopy
(c) in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (d) in-situ transmission X-ray microscopy
Fig.13  The principle (a) and accuracy analysis (b) of time-domain detection of probe test laser beam deflection (TD-PBD) (CTE—coefficient of thermal expansion)[106]
Fig.14  High throughput characterization platform based on SEM for MMCs
Fig.15  High throughput characterization platform based on X-ray synchrotron radiation for (MMCs)
(a) schematic of the whole platform
(b) assembly of the three dimensional and loading modules including 1—temperature and loading module, 2—vacuum module, 3—remote control module
Fig.16  Schematics of the rapid characterization of array samples
(a) an array sample containing sixteen samples
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