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Acta Metall Sin  2016, Vol. 52 Issue (9): 1045-1052    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2016.00066
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Lina WANG1,2,Ping YANG1(),Weimin MAO1
1 School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2 Department of Materials, School of Tianjin, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Tianjin 301830, China
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Among the wide variety of recently developed steels, high manganese transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels with low stacking fault energy (SFE) are particularly promising. Outstanding mechanical properties combining a high ductility and a high strength are then obtained. Compared to the static deformation of high manganese TRIP steels, the behaviors of martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of such steels during dynamic deformation may be different. In this work, martensitic transformation of high manganese TRIP steel at different strain rates was characterized by the EBSD technique. The volume fractions of austenite (γ), hcp martensite (ε-M) and bcc martensite (α’-M) were calculated based on the XRD data. Meanwhile, variant selections of martensitic transformation in γε-M and ε-M→α’-M transformation were investigated by theoretical calculation. It is shown that orientation dependence of TRIP effect during tension exists even at high strain rates and can be ascribed to the influence of mechanical work in differently oriented γ grains. The transformation of ε-M→α’-M was promoted, but the total amount of transformed martensite decreased, which means that TRIP effect was restricted at high strain rates. The α’-M variant selection is more obvious during static tension and became weaker during dynamic tensile deformation. α’-M variant selection can be predicted by the calculated mechanical works induced by the local stress in <111>γ and <100>γ grains during static tension. However, during dynamic tension, the mechanism of variant selection needs to be explained by analyzing the mechanical works induced by the local stress, the strain energy and the interfacial energy in these grains comprehensively. Compared to the occurrence of a single α’-M variant, a pair of α’-M variants having specific orientation relationship reduces the strain energy, then unfavored α’-M variants appear.

Key words:  high manganese steel      martensitic transformation      variant selection      EBSD     
Received:  26 February 2016     
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51271028)

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Fig.1  SEM image of undeformed high manganese TRIP steel
Fig.2  XRD spectrum of undeformed high manganese TRIP steel
Fig.3  XRD spectra of 40% tensioned high manganese TRIP steel with different strain rates
Fig.4  Volume fractions of γ, ε-M and α’-M phases in 40% tensioned high manganese TRIP steel with different strain rates
Fig.5  Orientation maps (a, b) and pole figures of γ, ε-M and α’-M (c, d) of <111>γ in 40% tensioned high manganese TRIP steel at strain rates of 1×10-3 s-1 (a, c) and 2×103 s-1 (b, d) (γ—gray color, ε-M—red color, α’-M—Euler angles color, TD—tensile direction)
Fig.6  Calculated mechanical works of 24 α’-M variants in a <111>γ grain
Fig.7  Schematic of 6 α’-M variants formed from one (0002)ε-M plane
Fig.8  Orientation map (a) and pole figures of γ, ε-M and α’-M (b) of <100>γ in 40% tensioned high manganese TRIP steel at strain rate of 2×103 s-1 (γ—gray color, ε-M—red color, α’-M—Euler angles color)
Fig.9  Calculated mechanical works of 24 α’-M variants in a <100>γ grain
Fig.10  Orientations of γ grains without martensitic transformation (a) and with martensitic transformation of more than 25% volume fraction (b) in 40% tensioned high manganese TRIP steel at strain rate of 2×103 s-1
Fig.11  Calculated mechanical works of 24 α’-M variants in a <110>γ grain
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