Please wait a minute...
Acta Metall Sin  2019, Vol. 55 Issue (11): 1359-1366    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00108
Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Intrinsic Increment of Plasticity Induced by TRIP and Its Dependence on the Annealing Temperature in a Lean Duplex Stainless Steel
CHEN Lei1,2,HAO Shuo 1,2,MEI Ruixue 2,JIA Wei 2,LI Wenquan 2,GUO Baofeng2()
1. National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China
2. College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China
Download:  HTML  PDF(6212KB) 
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  

Recently, advanced lean duplex stainless steels (LDXs) with exceptionally good tensile properties by transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) have been developed to respond to the skyrocketing raw material cost. In these new alloys, TRIP in the metastable austenite phase is expected to dominate overall deformation of the steels. Solution annealing, as a critical step of production processing, affects the austenite characteristics in LDXs, such as volume fraction and mechanical stability of austenite, which in turn influences its TRIP behavior. In order to further develop advanced LDXs, an assessment in the plastic increment of TRIP and its dependence on solution treatment are necessary. In this work, the tensile deformation test of a LDX which was annealed in the range of 1000~1200 ℃ was carried out on a Gleeble-3800 machine. The microstructural mechanism of work hardening characteristics was characterized by TEM, and the saturation of strain-induced martensite (SIM) under different conditions was calculated by XRD. Some quantitative indicators which can characterize the plastic increment of TRIP were proposed, including apparent plastic increment (Δe), average plastic increment (Δeˉ) induced by unit volume SIM and intrinsic plastic increment (Δe*) related only to mechanical stability of austenite. Meanwhile, their dependences on annealing temperature were discussed. The results show that SIM can develop in two ways of γεα′ and γα′ whereby the work hardening of the LDX exhibit a "three-stage" characteristic. There is a critical deformation temperature (Md) where the TRIP is absent at every annealing temperatures. The higher the annealing temperature is, the smaller the Md and the Δeare. As annealing temperature increases, Δeˉ increases, while Δe* decreases, indicating a fact that the more stable the austenite is, the smaller the intrinsic plastic increment of TRIP is. In addition, both Δeˉ and Δe* show a linear relationship with the austenite stability coefficient (k).

Key words:  lean duplex stainless steel      annealing temperature      deformation-induced martensitic transformation      TRIP effect      plastic increment     
Received:  10 April 2019     
ZTFLH:  TG142.1  
Fund: National Natural Science Foundation of China(51675467);National Natural Science Foundation of China(51675465);Project Funded by China Post Doctoral Science Foundation Nos(2016M600194);Project Funded by China Post Doctoral Science Foundation Nos(2017T100712);and Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province(E2016203284)
Corresponding Authors:  Baofeng GUO     E-mail:  baofengysu@163.com

Cite this article: 

CHEN Lei , HAO Shuo , MEI Ruixue , JIA Wei , LI Wenquan , GUO Baofeng . Intrinsic Increment of Plasticity Induced by TRIP and Its Dependence on the Annealing Temperature in a Lean Duplex Stainless Steel. Acta Metall Sin, 2019, 55(11): 1359-1366.

URL: 

https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00108     OR     https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/Y2019/V55/I11/1359

Fig.1  Stress-strain curves and work hardening rate curves of 2205 steel at different tensile temperatures (RT—room temperature, σE—engineering stress, εE—engineering strain, σ—true stress, ε—true strain, θ—work hardening rate)(a) σE-εE curves (b) σ-ε and θ-ε curves
Fig.2  Tensile deformation curves and work hardening characteristics of lean duplex stainless steel (LDX) and 2205 steel(a) σE-εE curves (b) σ-ε and θ-ε curves
Fig.3  TEM images of microstructural features near the tensile fracture of the LDX(a) bright field image of austenite (b) dark field image of austenite and SAED patterns (insets) (c) bright field image of ferrite
Fig.4  Engineering stress-engineering strain curves of the LDX after tension at different temperatures under typical annealing temperatures of 1000 ℃ (a), 1100 ℃ (b) and 1200 ℃ (c)
Ta / ℃Td / ℃σs / MPaσb / MPae / %eu / %
1000RT56698461.255.0
5056082057.252.2
7055578555.750.8
8055276138.429.2
9055175840.928.7
1050RT54098663.857.6
5053790858.254.6
7053582755.052.8
7553278052.832.8
8053077549.031.0
1100RT53196665.158.1
5053082060.255.2
6052876858.653.0
7052374751.434.5
9051474547.833.0
1150RT52280563.557.0
5051977559.554.3
6551869050.034.8
7051667552.035.0
1200RT52079663.556.5
5051677559.453.7
6051171449.835.8
7050970046.834.8
Table 1  Mechanical properties of LDX under various conditions
Fig.5  True stress-true strain and work hardening rate curves at room temperature and critical temperature under typical annealing temperatures of 1000 ℃ (a), 1100 ℃ (b) and 1200 ℃ (c) (Δe—apparent plastic increment, εE2—engineering strain corresponding to ε2, εE1—engineering strain corresponding to ε1, Md—critical deformation temperature)
Ta / ℃Md / ℃Δe / %VγkΔe* / %VMΔeˉ / %
10008025.80.484.390.5380.4100.629
10507524.80.4634.220.5360.3950.628
11007023.60.4463.980.5290.3740.631
11506522.20.4283.720.5190.3480.638
12006020.80.4103.380.5070.3200.649
Table 2  Statistical and calculation results of microstructure and mechanical properties at different annealing temperatures
Fig.6  XRD spectra of LDX under different conditions
Fig.7  Intrinsic plastic increment under different austenite stability
[1] ZhaoY, ZhangW N, LiuX, et al. Development of TRIP-aided lean duplex stainless steel by twin-roll strip casting and its deformation mechanism [J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2016, 47A: 6292
[2] HerreraC, PongeD, RaabeD. Design of a novel Mn-based 1 GPa duplex stainless TRIP steel with 60% ductility by a reduction of austenite stability [J]. Acta Mater., 2011, 59: 4653
[3] ChenL, ZhangY J, LiF, et al. Effect of solution temperature on TRIP/TWIP behavior of a lean duplex stainless steel [J]. Iron Steel, 2017, 52(4): 55
[3] 陈 雷, 张英杰, 李 飞等. 固溶温度对节约型双相不锈钢TRIP/TWIP行为的影响 [J]. 钢铁, 2017, 52(4): 55
[4] ZhangW, HuJ C. Effect of annealing temperature on transformation induced plasticity effect of a lean duplex stainless steel [J]. Mater. Charact., 2013, 79: 37
[5] ChoiJ Y, LeeJ, LeeK, et al. Effects of the strain rate on the tensile properties of a TRIP-aided duplex stainless steel [J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2016, A666: 280
[6] MoallemiM, Zarei-HanzakiA, BaghbadoraniH S. Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties in a cold deformed nitrogen bearing TRIP-assisted duplex stainless steel after reversion annealing [J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2017, A683: 83
[7] ZhangW F, ChenY M, ZhuJ H. Quantitative characterization of M-transformation-induced plasticity and effect of alloy elements [J]. Chin. J. Mater. Res., 2001, 15: 323
[7] 张旺峰, 陈瑜眉, 朱金华. 马氏体相变诱发塑性量化表征及合金元素的影响 [J]. 材料研究学报, 2001, 15: 323
[8] ZhangW F, ZhuJ H, CaoC X. Stress relaxation mechanism and calculation method of TRIP increment [J]. Met. Heat Treat, 2005, 30(2): 62
[8] 张旺峰, 朱金华, 曹春晓. 相变诱发塑性的应力松弛机制及塑性增量计算方法 [J]. 金属热处理, 2005, 30(2): 62
[9] ChenL, LiF, ZhangY J, et al. Calculation for the phase diagram and stability of metastable austenite in a TRIP/TWIP duplex stainless steel [J]. J. Yanshan Univ., 2016, 40: 35
[9] 陈 雷, 李 飞, 张英杰等. 一种TRIP/TWIP型双相不锈钢的相图及其亚稳奥氏体组织稳定性计算 [J]. 燕山大学学报, 2016, 40: 35
[10] SaenarjhanN, KangJ H, LeeS C, et al. Influence of annealing temperature on deformation behavior of 329LA lean duplex stainless steel [J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2017, A679: 531
[11] GuoB F, ZhangQ F, ChenL, et al. Influence of annealing temperature on the strain-hardening behavior of a lean duplex stainless steel [J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2018, A722: 216
[12] DieterG E. Mechanical Metallurgy [M]. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1988: 289
[13] KangJ Y, KimH, KimK I, et al. Effect of austenitic texture on tensile behavior of lean duplex stainless steel with transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) [J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2017, A681: 114
[14] ZhangH. Study on the stamping characteristics and technology of low-nickel austenitic stainless steel [D]. Guangzhou: South China University of Technology, 2016
[14] 张 豪. 节镍型奥氏体不锈钢冲压成形特性及拉深工艺研究 [D]. 广州: 华南理工大学, 2016
[15] TsuchidaN, YamaguchiY, MorimotoY, et al. Effects of temperature and strain rate on TRIP effect in SUS301L metastable austenitic stainless steel [J]. ISIJ Int., 2013, 53: 1881
[16] TsuchidaN, MorimotoY, TonanT, et al. Stress-induced martensitic transformation behaviors at various temperatures and their TRIP effects in SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless steel [J]. ISIJ Int., 2011, 51: 124
[17] WeissA, GutteH, MolaJ. Contributions of ε and α' TRIP effects to the strength and ductility of AISI 304 (X5CrNi18-10) austenitic stainless steel [J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2016, 47A: 112
[18] FuJ G, ZhangC Y. Basic Principle of Steel Structure [M]. Zhengzhou: The Yellow River Water Conservancy Press, 2011: 40
[18] 傅菊根, 张春玉. 钢结构基本原理 [M]. 郑州: 黄河水利出版社, 2011: 40
[19] OlsonG B, CohenM. Kinetics of strain-induced martensitic nucleation [J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 1975, 6A: 791
[20] ChoiJ Y, JiJ H, HwangS W, et al. Strain induced martensitic transformation of Fe-20Cr-5Mn-0.2Ni duplex stainless steel during cold rolling: Effects of nitrogen addition [J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2011, A528: 6012
[21] ChoiJ Y, JiJ H, HwangS W, et al. Effects of nitrogen content on TRIP of Fe-20Cr-5Mn-xN duplex stainless steel [J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2012, A534: 673
[22] ChoiJ Y, JiJ H, HwangS W, et al. TRIP aided deformation of a near-Ni-free, Mn-N bearing duplex stainless steel [J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2012, A535: 32
[23] MoverareJ J, OdénM. Influence of elastic and plastic anisotropy on the flow behavior in a duplex stainless steel [J]. Metal. Mater. Trans., 2002, 33A: 57
[24] CaiZ H, DingH, MisraR D K, et al. Austenite stability and deformation behavior in a cold-rolled transformation-induced plasticity steel with medium manganese content [J]. Acta Mater., 2015, 84: 229
[1] Wentao LI,Zhenyu WANG,Dong ZHANG,Jianguo PAN,Peiling KE,Aiying WANG. Preparation of Ti2AlC Coating by the Combination of a Hybrid Cathode Arc/Magnetron Sputtering with Post-Annealing[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(5): 647-656.
[2] Miao JIN, Wenquan LI, Shuo HAO, Ruixue MEI, Na LI, Lei CHEN. Effect of Solution Temperature on Tensile Deformation Behavior of Mn-N Bearing Duplex Stainless Steel[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(4): 436-444.
[3] Yaqiang TIAN,Geng TIAN,Xiaoping ZHENG,Liansheng CHEN,Yong XU,Shihong ZHANG. C and Mn Elements Characterization and Stability of Retained Austenite in Different Locations ofQuenching and Partitioning Bainite Steels[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(3): 332-340.
[4] CHEN Lei, HAO Shuo, ZOU Zongyuan, HAN Shuting, ZHANG Rongqiang, GUO Baofeng. Mechanical Characteristics of TRIP-Assisted Duplex Stainless Steel Fe-19.6Cr-2Ni-2.9Mn-1.6Si During Cyclic Deformation[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(12): 1495-1502.
[5] Feng YANG, Haiwen LUO, Han DONG. Effects of Intercritical Annealing Temperature on the Tensile Behavior of Cold Rolled 7Mn Steel and the Constitutive Modeling[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(6): 859-867.
[6] Kai ZHU, Cuilan WU, Pan XIE, Mei HAN, Yuanrui LIU, Xiangge ZHANG, Jianghua CHEN. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Austenite/Ferrite Laminate Structured High-Manganese Steel[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(10): 1387-1398.
[7] REN Yongqiang XIE Zhenjia SHANG Chengjia. REGULATION OF RETAINED AUSTENITE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LOW CARBON STEEL[J]. 金属学报, 2012, 48(9): 1074-1080.
[8] WANG Qi HE Zhirong WANG Yongshan YANG Jun. EFFECTS OF ANNEALING TEMPERATURE AND STRESS-STRAIN CYCLE ON SUPERELASTICITY  OF Ti-Ni-Cr SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY[J]. 金属学报, 2010, 46(7): 800-804.
[9] FANG Yiliu LIU Zhenyu ZHANG Weina WANG Guodong SONG Hongmei JIANG Laizhu. MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION OF LEAN DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL 2101 DURING HOT DEFORMATION[J]. 金属学报, 2010, 46(6): 641-646.
[10] LIU Gang PENG Huabei WEN Yuhua YANG Kun LI Ning. A TRAINING-FREE CAST Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY BASED ON FORMATION OF MARTENSITE IN A DOMAIN MANNER II. Influence of annealing on shape memory effect[J]. 金属学报, 2010, 46(3): 288-293.
[11] LU Fayun YANG Ping MENG Li MAO Weimin. BEHAVIOR OF MARTENSITE REVERSE TRANSFORMATION IN A HIGH MANGANESE TRIP STEEL DURING WARM DEFORMATION[J]. 金属学报, 2010, 46(10): 1153-1160.
[12] ZHANG Weina LIU Zhengyu WANG Guodong. MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION INDUCED BY DEFORMATION AND WORK–HARDENING BEHAVIOR OF HIGH MANGANESE TRIP STEELS[J]. 金属学报, 2010, 46(10): 1230-1236.
[13] ;. EFFECTS OF ANNEALING TEMPERATURE ON THE MICROSTRUCTURES AND PROPERTIES OF COPPER CLADDING ALUMINUM WIRES BY COLD HYDROSTATIC EXTRUSION[J]. 金属学报, 2008, 44(6): 675-680 .
[14] Liang Meng. EFFECTS OF ANNEALING TEMPERATURE ON INTENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF CRYSTAL TEXTURE IN Cu-12% Ag FILAMENTARY COMPOSITE[J]. 金属学报, 2008, 44(1): 43-48 .
[15] ZHAO Weitao; YAN Desheng; RONG Lijian. TEM observation of annealing microstructure of deformed Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy[J]. 金属学报, 2005, 41(11): 1150-1154 .
No Suggested Reading articles found!