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Acta Metall Sin  2016, Vol. 52 Issue (7): 797-803    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2016.00004
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Chenliang WU1,Song ZHANG1(),Chunhua ZHANG1,Meng GUAN2,Junzhe TAN2
1 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870, China
2 Nuclear Power Pump Industry Co., Ltd., Shenyang Blower Works Group Corporation, Shenyang 110869, China
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High-entropy alloys (HEAs), defined as solid solution alloys which have at least 5 principal elements but no more than 13 elements, with concentrations of each principal element ranging from 5% to 35% in atomic fraction, are emerging as one of the hot research frontiers in the metallic materials field. The significance of HEAs originates from their various combinations of high strength, good thermal stability and excellent resistance to corrosion, wear and oxidation. HEAs exhibit simple solid solutions with bcc and/or fcc structure(s) due to the effect of high mixing entropy in the solid solution state of HEAs, which may make the HEAs with improved mechanical and physical properties. However, a small quantity of intermetallic compounds can also form in certain HEAs, indicating that the formation of simple solid solutions cannot solely depend on the high mixing entropy. Then, the theory of HEAs based on the concept of entropy-enthalpy competition to judge whether or not simple phases will form was proposed. However, even if an alloy meets these criterions, it can still contain intermetallic phases. Why and how these intermetallics form in HEAs needs much more clarification. In this work, Co-Al-Cu-Ni-Mox (x=0, 0.5, 1) powder system with close-to-equiatomic ratios was mixed and laser surface alloyed onto 2Cr13 stainless steel substrates, and then the FeCoCrAlCuNiMox HEA coatings were obtained by reaction synthesis of Fe, Cr with Co-Al-Cu-Ni-Mox powder. The phase transition mechanism, microstructure and microhardness of FeCoCrAlCuNiMox coatings were investigated by XRD, SEM, EDS and microhardness tester. Experimental results showed that the principal elements of Fe, Cr in 2Cr13 stainless steel substrate participated in surface alloying process during the laser irradiation, forming FeCoCrAlCuNiMox laser high-entropy alloying coatings. With the increase of Mo content, the crystal structures of FeCoCrAlCuNiMox laser high-entropy alloying coatings evolved from fcc+bcc two-phase solid solution to fcc+bcc solid solution with hcp phase precipitations. The hcp phases were mainly Ni3Mo and Co7Mo6, and the content of Ni3Mo phase was higher than that of Co7Mo6. The phase formation analysis indicated that besides Ω and δ parameters, solidification temperature of the molten pool must be considered during the phase selection, instead of melting point as suggested previously. The microstructure of the coatings exhibited a typical dendrite structure. With the increase of Mo content, the block-shaped Ni3Mo and Co7Mo6 precipitated in the innerdendritic regions. The microhardness of the FeCoCrAlCuNiMox laser high-entropy alloying coatings was 390~490 HV, which significantly increased with the increase of Mo content.

Key words:  stainless steel      laser high-entropy alloying      phase constituent      microhardness     
Received:  02 January 2016     
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51271126) and Shenyang Science and Technology Funded Project (No.F16-032-0-00)

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Fig.1  XRD spectra of FeCoCrAlCuNiMox (x=0, 0.5, 1) laser high-entropy alloying coatings
Fig.2  Local XRD spectra (2θ=40°~47°) of FeCoCrAlCu-NiMox laser high-entropy alloying coatings
x Ω δ / % e/a ΔHmix / (Jmol-1) ΔSmix / (JK-1mol-1)
0 5.075 4.983 7.849 -4797 14.909
0.5 6.784 4.980 7.700 -4079 16.013
1 8.336 4.950 7.579 -3517 16.186
Table 1  Parameters of Ω, δ, e/a, ΔHmix and ΔSmix for FeCoCrAlCuNiMox laser high-entropy alloying coatings
Fig.3  Macro morphologies of FeCoCrAlCuNiMox laser high-entropy alloying coatings at x=0 (a), x=0.5 (b) and x=1 (c)
Fig.4  SEM images of cross-section of FeCoCrAlCuNiMox laser high-entropy alloying coatings at x=0 (a), x=0.5 (b) and x=1 (c)
Fig.5  Microhardness of FeCoCrAlCuNiMox laser high-entropy alloying coatings and substrate
x Region Fe Co Cr Al Cu Ni Mo
0 A 22.34 17.06 6.87 20.89 11.79 21.06 -
B 22.10 14.66 4.01 17.38 22.37 19.48 -
0.5 A 24.21 19.44 4.34 11.53 10.87 22.83 6.78
B 21.87 13.86 5.56 15.43 20.87 17.56 4.85
1 A 18.91 15.83 6.74 10.48 12.83 18.37 16.84
B 21.08 14.79 5.97 8.46 18.96 17.45 13.29
C 4.82 19.32 2.54 1.13 0.87 56.45 14.87
Table 2  EDS analysis results of FeCoCrAlCuNiMox (x=0, 0.5, 1) laser high-entropy alloying coatings corresponding to areas in Fig.4 (atomic fraction / %)
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