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Acta Metall Sin  2016, Vol. 52 Issue (4): 394-402    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2015.00371
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Dean DENG1,2(),Yanbin ZHANG1,Suo LI1,Yangang TONG1
1 College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
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Microstructure and welding residual stresses in ferritic heat-resistant steels such as P92 have been considered as one of the most important factors in the structural integrity and life assessment of power plant weldments. Applying computational tools to predict microstructure and residual stress distribution in practical welded structures is a preferable way to create safer, more reliable and lower cost structures. In this work, the effects of volume change, yield strength variation and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) on the generation of residual stresses in P92 steel welded joints were investigated experimentally and numerically. Optical microscope and Vickers hardness tester were used to characterize the microstructure and hardness of the weldments. The hole-drilling strain-gage method was employed to determine the residual stress distribution across the weldments. Based on SYSWELD software, a thermal-metallurgical-mechanical finite element method (FEM) was developed to simulate welding temperature field and residual stress distribution in P92 steel joints. Firstly, numerical simulations of Satoh test were carried out to clarify the influence of solid-state phase transformation on the formation of residual stresses. The simulation results show that the volume change and the yield stress variation have a great effect on the magnitude and distribution profiles of residual stresses in the fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ), and even alter the sign of the stresses, while TRIP have a relaxation effect on the tendency of stress variation during phase transformation. Secondly, a FEM was established to calculate the welding residual stress distribution in a single-pass bead-on P92 steel joint. In the FEM, three main constituent phases (austenite, untempered martensite and tempered martensite) in P92 steel were taken into account. Finally, the simulation results of welding residual stress were compared with the experiments obtained by hole-drilling method. The numerical simulation results are generally in a good agreement with the measured data.

Key words:  solid-state phase transformation      Satoh test      residual stress      TRIP      SYSWELD      numerical simulation     
Received:  10 July 2015     
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51275544)

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Fig.1  Schematic of dimensions of welded joint (unit: mm)
Fig.2  Schematic of arrangement of strain gauges (unit: mm)
Fig.3  Schematic of locations of hardness measurement (unit: mm, FZ—fusion zone, HAZ—heat affected zone, BM—base metal)
Fig.4  Schematic of the coupling among temperature, microstructure and stress
Fig.5  Temperature-dependent thermal properties of P92 steel (ρ—density, c—specific heat, λ—thermal conductivity, M—martensite, A—austenite)
Fig.6  Schematic of heal flux distribution in Goldak heat source model (x, y, z—directions in Descartes coordinate system, af—front length of the FZ, ar—rear length of the fusion zone, b—half width of the fusion zone, d—half depth of the fusion zone, q(x, y, z)—density of heal flux)
Fig.7  Temperature-strain curves of P92 steel during heating and cooling (MS—martensite transformation start temperature, Ac1—austenization start temperature , Ac3—austenization finish temperature)
Fig.8  Yield strength variations of P92 steel during welding thermal cycle (UM—untempered martensite, TM—tempered martensite)
Fig.9  Schematics of finite element model (FEM) and restraint conditions of Satoh test (unit: mm)
Case Volume Yield strength TRIP
change variation
A No No No
B Yes No No
C No Yes No
D Yes Yes No
E Yes Yes Yes
Table 1  Specific considerations for the simulation cases
Fig.10  Schematic of FEM and restraint conditions (v—welding speed)
Fig.11  Microstructures of P92 steel welded joint
Fig.12  Vickers hardness distribution of P92 steel welded joint
Fig.13  Simulation results of Satoh test
Fig.14  Comparison between the experimental and the simulated weld profiles
Fig.15  Distributions of welding residual stresses at longitudinal (a) and transverses (b) directions
Fig.16  Comparisons of longitudinal (a) and transverse (b)welding residual stresses along center line of the top surface cross-section between computational and experimental results
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