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Acta Metall Sin  2016, Vol. 52 Issue (2): 249-256    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2015.00309
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Songquan WU1,2,Yi YANG3,Geping LI1(),Dehai PING4,Qingmiao HU1,Rui YANG1
1) Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
2) Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemical and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on The Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002, China
3) Research Institute (R&D center), Baosteel Group Corporation, Shanghai 201900, China
4) Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China;
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{112}<111>-type twin is a common twinning structure in quenched carbon steel. As carbon content increases, the density of the twin becomes high in the quenched state. Researchers have suggested that understanding such twinning mechanism may help us to understand the martensitic transformation in steel. {112}<111>-type twin is also commonly observed in other body centered cubic (bcc) metals and alloys, especially deformed under the conditions of low temperatures and/or high strain rates. Yet, due to the intrinsic non-close-packed structure and the rapid speed of twinning process, the mechanisms of twinning nucleation, growth and termination have not been clearly understood although phenomenological mechanisms such as the classical shearing mechanism, dislocation mechanism, or shuffling mechanism, etc., were proposed. Recently, after reviewing numerous investigations on {112}<111>-type twinning process both experimentally and theoretically in bcc metals and alloys, it was found that the twinning boundaries are always embedded with ω phase, i.e., the displacement of the first layer of the twin is 1/12 <111> for ω instead of 1/6 <111> for twin, thus, an ω phase-related {112}<111>-type twinning mechanism (so-called ω lattice mechanism) in our previous study is proposed. In order to better understand the ω lattice mechanism, in this work, a detailed description of the whole process of nucleation, growth and termination of the {112}<111>-type twinning was offered by using the atomic lattice model. The model shows that the twin could nucleate during ω→bcc transition process, and then grow up by extending or merging of twin embryos, and finally terminate during encountering the different ω variants. Such two-dimensional atomic model can be extended to three-dimensional one, which can finally explain the formation mechanism of an internal twin in one bcc crystal. Moreover, the model suggests that the diffuse ω lattice (ωdiff) between the ideal ω lattice and bcc lattice (in the twin boundary) plays an important role in promoting the transition of ω↔bcc during twinning nucleation and growth processes. The results suggest that the {112}<111>-type twins are phase transition twin or phase transformation product.

Key words:  metal and alloy      twin      phase transformation      ωlattice     
Received:  15 June 2015     
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51271200)

Cite this article: 

Songquan WU,Yi YANG,Geping LI,Dehai PING,Qingmiao HU,Rui YANG. ω LATTICE MECHANISM OF {112}<111> TWINNING NUCLEATION AND GROWTH AND TERMINATION. Acta Metall Sin, 2016, 52(2): 249-256.

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Fig.1  Schematic of the classical shear model of {112}<111>-type twinning in bcc crystals (The solid ● and open ○ circles represent atoms in the adjacent 101ˉ layers (similarly hereinafter))
Fig.2  Schematic of the ω formation in bcc matrix (Zones I~III represent bcc lattice, diffuse ω lattice and ideal ω lattice, respectively. The stacking sequence of (111) plane in bcc lattice was “…ABCA…”. An ideal ω lattice formed after layer B and layer C totally collapsing to one layer B', and a diffuse ω lattice formed after layer B and layer C partially collapsing to layer B' and layer C'. The green zone and the light green zone stand for the diffuse ω lattice and the ideal ω lattice, respectively (similarly hereinafter))
Fig.3  Schematic of the relationship between {112}<111> twinning and ω phase transition (Zones I~V represent bcc matrix lattice, diffuse ω lattice (ωdiff), ideal ω lattice (ωideal), diffuse ω lattice (ω'diff) and 12ˉ1)[111] twin lattice (bccT), respectively. 12ˉ1)[111] twinning process (bcc→bccT) in bcc lattice could be divided into bcc→ωdiff, ωdiffωideal, ωidealω'diff and ω'diff→bccT micro-processes. Those micro-processes promoted the {112}<111> twinning process)
Fig.4  Schematic of a (12ˉ1)[111] twin nucleation
Fig.5  Schematic of the twin growth
Fig.6  Schematic of the twin termination
ωij ωi1 ωi2 ωi3
ω1j 0, 1/12[111], -1/12[111] 1/12[111], 1/6[111], -1/4[111] -1/12[111], 1/4[111], -1/6[111]
ω2j 0, 1/12[311], -1/12[311] 1/12[1ˉ11], 1/6[111], -1/12[133] -1/12[1ˉ11], 1/12[133], -1/6[111]
ω3j 0, 1/12[113], -1/12[113] 1/12111ˉ, 1/6[111], -1/12[331] -1/12111ˉ, 1/12[331], -1/6[111]
ω4j 0, 1/12[131], -1/12[131] 1/1211ˉ1], 1/6[111], -1/12[313] -1/1211ˉ1], 1/12[313], -1/6[111]
Table 1  Atomic displacement in ωij lattice for 12ˉ1)[111] twinning
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