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Acta Metall Sin  2014, Vol. 50 Issue (12): 1520-1528    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2014.00263
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LIN Yinghua, LEI Yongping, FU Hanguang, LIN Jian
College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124
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Abstract  Titanium alloys have been known as useful materials for their superior mechanical properties, low density and high specific strength. However, the application of conventional titanium alloys on engine parts of airplane is limited by their poor wear resistance, low fatigue strength and low hardness. Particles reinforced titanium matrix composites have attracted extensive investigation in material science and engineering. Mechanical properties can be improved by reinforcing the loaded outer layer of Ti with ceramic particles. TiB and TiB2 are considered as the excellent ceramic reinforced particles for their compatible physical and thermodynamic properties, high hardness and Young's modulus of elasticity. However, TiB2 has high brittleness. The intermetallic compound NiTi, well-known for its shape memory effect and pseudo-elasticity, is one of the rarely few intermetallic compounds having excellent combination of high strength, ductility and toughness as well as excellent wear resistance and fabrication processing properties. An in situ TiB/TiB2 structured ceramic materials as the reinforcing phase and NiTi intermetallic phase as the matrix would be expected to have an outstanding combination of high hardness and toughness. To investigate the microstructure and properties of the cladded layers, two types of composites were prepared by laser cladding powders containing TiB2 and Ni+TiB2 as a preset level on the surface of titanium alloy. The composite coatings were analyzed by XRD, SEM, EPMA, micro hardness tester and brinell hardness. The results showed that TiB2 particulate and TiB short fiber reinforced titanium matrix composite coating were obtained, which had poor quality of coating shape when Ni was not added. The coating was mainly composed of TiB2, TiB, Ti and NiTi phase when Ni was added and surface coating quality was improved and the bcc structure of NiTi alloy was filled with TiB2 particulate and TiB short fiber surrounding. The coating was coarse with particle size of TiB2 at 3~5 μm when Ni was not added, while it contained fine particles of TiB2 with particle size of 0.5~3 μm and b-Ti base appeared when Ni was added. The micro-hardness of the coating was reduced when Ni was added, but the fracture toughness of the coating increased. The mechanism of toughening was discussed based on fracture behaviors. Fracture toughness of titanium matrix composite coatings were improved mainly through particle debonding and short fiber breakage by the offset resulting in crack deflection.
Key words:  laser technique      laser cladding      TC4 titanium alloy      TiB      TiB     
Fund: ; Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51275006)
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondent: LEI Yonping, professor, Tel: (010)67391759, E-mail:   
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Cross-section morphologies of coatings before (a) and after (b) addition of Ni with laser power P=2.5 kW and scanning rate V=6 mm/s


XRD spectra of composite coating before (a) and after (b) addition of Ni with P=2.5 kW and V=6 mm/s


SEM images of middle regions of composite coating before adding Ni under laser power of 1.7 kW (a), 2.5 kW (b) and 3.2 kW (c) with V=6 mm/s


SEM images of middle regions of composite coating after adding Ni under laser power of 1.7 kW (a), 2.5 kW (b) and 3.2 kW (c) with V=6 mm/s


SEM image (a) and EPMA surface scanning for B (b) , Ni (c) and Ti (d) elements of composite coating with Ni∶TiB2=1∶1


Microhardness results of coatings with P=2.5 kW and V=6 mm/s


SEM images of coating surface with P=2.5 kW and V=6 mm/s before (a) and after (b) addition of Ni after micro-indentation with load 30 kg


SEM images of coating bottom with P=2.5 kW and V=6 mm/s before (a) and after (b) addition of Ni after micro-indentation with load 30 kg


SEM image of coating before Ni addition with P=2 kW and V=6 mm/s after micro-indentation with load 30 kg


SEM images of coating after Ni addition with P=2.5 kW and V=6 mm/s after micro-indentation with load 30 kg

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