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金属学报  2019, Vol. 55 Issue (4): 496-510    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00191
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清华大学材料学院先进材料教育部重点实验室 北京 100084
An Investigation of the Crystallography of Pearlites Nucleated on the Proeutectoid Cementite
Wensheng XU,Wenzheng ZHANG()
Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials MOE, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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利用SEM和EBSD技术表征了Fe-1.29C-13.9Mn (质量分数,%)钢中先共析渗碳体上形核珠光体的形貌和晶体学。大多数珠光体内铁素体与奥氏体之间接近K-S位向关系,与渗碳体之间则可出现多种择优位向关系。分析表明,魏氏渗碳体旁珠光体的形核领先相是铁素体,未观察到珠光体中渗碳体从魏氏渗碳体分支生长,或它们之间存在择优取向。晶界渗碳体旁珠光体存在2种可能:晶界渗碳体可延续为珠光体的渗碳体,同时铁素体往往与背靠奥氏体接近K-S位向关系,渗碳体可视为领先相,不排除铁素体为领先相的可能;同时也观察到晶界渗碳体与珠光体内渗碳体呈现不同取向,此时领先相是铁素体。珠光体团初期形貌不规则,生长后期两相基本保持平行片层结构,同一铁素体片层会存在取向变化甚至分层。

关键词 珠光体渗碳体形貌晶体学位向关系领先相    

Pearlite is common microstructure in the carbon steel, which is widely applied in the railway steel and cold drawn steel where high wear resistance and strength are required. The pearlite colony is a circumscribed aggregate within which lamellae of cementite and ferrite phases have the same orientation. A cluster of wedge-shaped pearlite colonies will form the pearlite group nodules. The morphology of pearlite colonies will be influenced by the crystallography of pearlite. The common orientation relationship (OR) between pearlitic ferrite and pearlitic cementite is the Pitsch-Petch, Bagaryatsky, and Isaichev ORs. Combined with deep etching, SEM was used to investigate the morphology and crystallography of pearlite colonies and pearlite group nodules nucleated on the proeutectoid cementite in a Fe-1.29C-13.9Mn steel. The results showed that the initial morphology of the pearlite is irregular, but the pearlite possesses a parallel lamellar structure at the later stage of growth. Mutual ORs between phases of austenite, cementite, and ferrite in pearlite, proeutectoid grain boundary cementite, and Widmannstätten cementite were measured with the EBSD technique. Several reproducible ORs between cementite and ferrite lamellar have been observed, including the Pitsch-Petch, Bagaryatsky, and Isaichev ORs, without a particularly dominant OR. Since the two phases in the pearlite colonies have reproducible preferential OR, they are usually not independently nucleated, otherwise the independent nucleation of the cementite and ferrite inside the austenite has special crystallographic requirements for the mutual ORs between ferrite, cementite, and austenite. Thus, there will be a phase that nucleates first, which is called the "active nucleus". The active nucleus of pearlite has been carefully examined mainly according to the preferred OR between the pearlitic phases and existing phases. While the development of the pearlite crystallography is influenced by the active nucleus, no clear relationship was found between the ORs within the pearlite and active nucleus of the pearlite. The ORs between austenite and major pearlitic ferrite are near the K-S OR, but the ORs between austenite and the pearlitic cementite are various, depending on the preferred ORs between pearlitic ferrite and both austenite and pearlitic cementite. Widmannstätten cementite has never been seen to grow into pearlite. The measured data suggests that active nucleus of the pearlite colonies and pearlite group nodules nucleated on Widmannstätten cementite is ferrite. In some cases, grain boundary cementite was seen to grow as part of pearlite. Consequently, the grain boundary cementite is regarded as the active nucleus, though a preferred OR often coexists between pearlitic ferrite and either austenite or proeutectoid cementite. In other cases, the orientations of pearlitic cementite and grain-boundary cementite are discontinuous. For these cases, the ferrite is likely the active nucleus of pearlite. The orientation of pearlitic ferrite was seen to alter with the growth of pearlite, even causing the split of a single ferrite layer into two grain layers with a considerable misorientation. Significant distortion varying with the layers of pearlite was noticed in austenite near the pearlite growth front, indicating an evident strain field caused by the pearlite transformation. This requests a further investigation.

Key wordspearlite    cementite    morphology    crystallography    orientation relationship    active nucleus
收稿日期: 2018-05-15     
ZTFLH:  TG113  
通讯作者: 张文征     E-mail:
Corresponding author: Wenzheng ZHANG     E-mail:
作者简介: 徐文胜,男,1990年生,博士生


徐文胜, 张文征. 先共析渗碳体上形核的珠光体晶体学研究[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(4): 496-510.
Wensheng XU, Wenzheng ZHANG. An Investigation of the Crystallography of Pearlites Nucleated on the Proeutectoid Cementite. Acta Metall Sin, 2019, 55(4): 496-510.

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Orientation relationshipMathematical equation
Isaichev[13]1ˉ03C//(110)F; 010C//11ˉ1ˉF; [311]C0.91°//[11ˉ1]F
Bagaryatsky[12][100]C//[11ˉ0]F; 010C//11ˉ1ˉF; [001]C//[112ˉ]F
Pitsch-Petch[14,15][100]C2.6°//[131ˉ]F; 010C2.6°//113F;[001]C//[52ˉ1ˉ]F
New-2[16,17]1ˉ03C//(1ˉ01)F; 010C8.5°//131F; [311]C//[11ˉ1]F
New-3[16,17]022ˉC//(1ˉ01)F;[311]C//[11ˉ1]F; [100]C2.4°//[13ˉ1]F
New-4[16,17]210C//(1ˉ01)F; [001]C//[131]F; [1ˉ21]C5.9°//[101]F
表1  珠光体团内铁素体与渗碳体片层间几种常见位向关系[12,13,14,15,16,17]
图1  Fe-1.29C-13.9Mn钢在650 ℃保温15 h后早期珠光体团及团簇形貌的SEM像
图2  Fe-1.29C-13.9Mn钢在650 ℃保温72 h后珠光体团簇横截面的SEM像
图3  Fe-1.29C-13.9Mn钢在650 ℃保温8 h后早期珠光体团簇EBSD测量结果
ColonyF/CF/AC/AF/WC or F/GCC/WC or C/GC
2Pitsch-Petch[14,15]Near K-S (I)Switched F-E[32]UnreportedDiscontinuous
表2  图3中珠光体内铁素体(F)、珠光体内渗碳体(C)、晶界渗碳体(GC)、魏氏渗碳体(WC)以及奥氏体基体(A)之间的晶体学位向关系
图4  Fe-1.29C-13.9Mn钢在650 ℃保温72 h后形核于魏氏渗碳体界面的珠光体团EBSD测量结果
图5  图4中WC、F和C及A所对应的极图
图6  Fe-1.29C-13.9Mn钢在650 ℃保温72 h后2个珠光体区域EBSD测量结果
ColonyF/CF/AC/AF/WC or F/GCC/WC or C/GC
IIPitsch-Petch[14,15]Near K-S[26]UnreportedUnreportedNear (10°)
IIINew-2[16]Near K-S[26]UnreportedUnreportedDiscontinuous
IVPitsch-Petch[14,15]Near K-S[26]UnreportedBagaryatsky[12]Discontinuous
VPitsch-Petch[14,15]Near K-S[26]UnreportedNew-3[16]Continuous
VIPitsch-Petch[14,15]Near K-S[26]F-E[30]Pitsch-Petch[14,15]Continuous
表3  图6中F、C、GC、WC以及A之间的晶体学位向关系
图7  图6中珠光体团簇内铁素体与左侧晶粒内奥氏体基体的极图
3New-3/New-4Pitsch-PetchNear K-SDiscontinuousUnreportedF-E
4Pitsch-PetchUnreportedNear K-S10°UnreportedUnreported
5Pitsch-PetchUnreportedK-SDiscontinuousSwitched F-EPitsch
7New-3-Near K-S-Unreported-
9BagaryatskyUnreportedNear K-SDiscontinuousUnreportedPitsch
9Pitsch-PetchUnreportedNear K-SDiscontinuousUnreportedPitsch
9Pitsch-PetchUnreportedNear K-SDiscontinuousSwitched F-EPitsch
10Pitsch-PetchPitsch-PetchK-S (I)ContinuousUnreportedUnreported
11Pitsch-PetchPitsch-PetchK-S (I)ContinuousF-E (I)F-E (I)
12Pitsch-PetchBagaryatskyNear K-SDiscontinuousUnreportedUnreported
12New-3Pitsch-PetchNear K-S/K-S (I)UnreportedNew OR[39]
12Pitsch-PetchPitsch-PetchNear K-S (I)ContinuousNew OR[39]New OR[39]
13Bagaryatsky-K-S (I)-Pitsch (I)-
13BagaryatskyBagaryatskyNear K-S (I)ContinuousPitsch (I)Pitsch (I)
13Pitsch-PetchPitsch-PetchNear K-SContinuousPitsch (I)Pitsch (I)
13New-3New-3Near K-S (I)ContinuousF-E (I)F-E (I)
13New-3New-3UnreportedContinuousPitsch (I)Pitsch (I)
14Pitsch-PetchPitsch-PetchUnreportedDiscontinuousUnreportedF-E (I)
14Pitsch-PetchPitsch-PetchNear K-SDiscontinuousUnreportedF-E (I)
表4  先共析渗碳体界面形核珠光体内铁素体片层、珠光体内渗碳体片层、先共析渗碳体以及奥氏体基体间不同的位向关系EBSD测量结果
图8  Fe-1.29C-13.9Mn钢在650 ℃保温72 h后垂直魏氏渗碳体片两侧Mn和Fe元素分布
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