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金属学报  2020, Vol. 56 Issue (4): 513-522    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00361
  综述 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 |
滚动轴承钢冶金质量与疲劳性能现状及高端轴承钢发展方向
俞峰1,2,陈兴品1,徐海峰2,董瀚3,翁宇庆2,曹文全2()
1.重庆大学材料科学与工程学院 重庆 400044
2.钢铁研究总院特殊钢研究所 北京 100081
3.上海大学材料科学与工程学院 上海 200444
Current Status of Metallurgical Quality and Fatigue Performance of Rolling Bearing Steel and Development Direction of High-End Bearing Steel
YU Feng1,2,CHEN Xingpin1,XU Haifeng2,DONG Han3,WENG Yuqing2,CAO Wenquan2()
1.College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
2.Special Steel Institute, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081, China
3.School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
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摘要: 

本文首先介绍了以GCr15为代表的第一代轴承钢、以M50和M50NiL为代表的第二代轴承钢、以Cronidur30和CSS-42L为代表的第三代轴承钢的发展历程,提出了以轻质化为特征的第四代轴承合金发展方向;通过对传统轴承钢的冶金质量和疲劳性能等归纳分析,提出了大颗粒夹杂物和碳化物细质化与均匀化的轴承钢冶金质量控制方向,揭示了轴承钢接触疲劳的夹杂物控制机制和碳化物控制的2种不同抗疲劳机制;通过对传统轴承钢GCr15的超高纯冶金质量控制工艺技术与定量表征技术的国内外最新进展,提出了超高纯与等向性的高端轴承钢冶金质量控制发展方向;通过对轴承钢GCr15和CSS-42L的基体和碳化物超细化的整体热处理技术与表面渗碳技术研究,创新研发出双细化热处理和表面超硬化热处理,从而将轴承钢GCr15的室温接触疲劳寿命提高到5倍和10倍以上。文章最后针对轴承钢的冶金质量与性能进行了检验检测技术分析,指出定量检验检测技术的应用是高性能轴承钢的重要保障。

关键词 滚动轴承钢冶金质量疲劳性能高端轴承钢发展方向    
Abstract

This paper reviewed the development history of the first generation bearing steel GCr15, the second generation bearing steels M50 and M50NiL, and the third generation bearing steels Cronidur30 and CSS-42L. The fourth generation bearing alloy characterized by light weight is put forward. Based on the analysis of metallurgical quality and fatigue properties of traditional bearing steel, the direction of metallurgical quality control of bearing steel with fine quality and homogenization of large particle inclusions and carbide was proposed, and the contact fatigue control mechanism of bearing steel and two different anti-fatigue mechanisms of carbide control were revealed. According to the latest development of quality control technology and quantitative characterization technology for traditional bearing steel GCr15, the development direction of quality control for high-end bearing steel is proposed. Through the research on the overall heat treatment technology and surface carburizing technology of superfine matrix and carbide of bearing steel GCr15 and CSS-42L steel, the double heat treatment and surface superhardening heat treatment are innovatively developed, which can increase the contact fatigue life of bearing steel GCr15 at room temperature to 5 times and more than 10 times, respectively. Finally, it is pointed out that the application of quantitative inspection and testing technology is an important guarantee for high-performance bearing steel with good metallurgical quality and high performance.

Key wordsrolling bearing steel    metallurgical quality    fatigue performance    high-end bearing steel    development direction
收稿日期: 2019-10-29     
ZTFLH:  TG142.7  
基金资助:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFB0300101)
通讯作者: 曹文全     E-mail: caowenquan@nercast.com
Corresponding author: Wenquan CAO     E-mail: caowenquan@nercast.com
作者简介: 俞 峰,男,1970年生,高级工程师,博士生

引用本文:

俞峰,陈兴品,徐海峰,董瀚,翁宇庆,曹文全. 滚动轴承钢冶金质量与疲劳性能现状及高端轴承钢发展方向[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(4): 513-522.
Feng YU, Xingpin CHEN, Haifeng XU, Han DONG, Yuqing WENG, Wenquan CAO. Current Status of Metallurgical Quality and Fatigue Performance of Rolling Bearing Steel and Development Direction of High-End Bearing Steel. Acta Metall Sin, 2020, 56(4): 513-522.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00361      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2020/V56/I4/513

GenerationCharacteristicsThe main materialThe main performance
The firstNormal temperature (≤150 ℃)GCr15High hardness, wear resistance
9Cr18(Mo)High hardness, corrosion resistance
G20CrNi2MoImpact resistance
42CrMo, G55MnBoth strength and toughness
The secondElevated temperature (≤350 ℃)8Cr4Mo4VHigh hardness, high wear resistance,
temperature resistance
G115Cr14Mo4VHigh hardness, temperature resistance,
corrosion resistance
G13Cr4Mo4Ni4VTemperature resistance, impact resistance
The thirdElevated temperature and corrosionG13Cr14Co12Mo5Ni2High strength and toughness,
resistance (350~500 ℃)high temperature resistance,
corrosion resistance
G30Cr15MoNHigh hardness, high corrosion resistant
The fourthLight weight material60NiTi, GCr15AlLow density, temperature resistance,
density ρ≤6.7 g·cm-3high corrosion resistance
表1  轴承钢主要钢种的现状与发展
图1  G13Cr14Co12Mo5Ni2钢的渗碳层组织形貌及硬度分布
图2  不锈轴承钢显微组织的SEM像
ProcessL10L50b
107 cyc107 cyc
BOF+LF+RH1.073.341.66
Argon shield atmosphere ESR3.5611.921.56
VIM+VAR5.4716.371.72
表2  不同工艺冶炼GCr15轴承钢的接触疲劳性能
图3  2种工艺下8Cr4Mo4V钢的铸态组织
图4  2种工艺下9Cr18Mo钢的碳化物
图5  新型热处理对M50轴承钢组织细化的影响
图6  GCr15轴承钢的常规淬火组织和经过双阶段热处理细化后的基体组织
图7  热处理对轴承钢GCr15接触疲劳寿命的影响
图8  非金属夹杂物检测技术
图9  利用ASPEX全自动夹杂物分析仪检测的夹杂物分布图
图10  推力片与棒球接触疲劳试验机原理图
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