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金属学报  2020, Vol. 56 Issue (4): 494-512    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00328
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超高强高韧化钢的研究进展和展望
罗海文(),沈国慧
北京科技大学冶金与生态工程学院 北京 100083
Progress and Perspective of Ultra-High Strength Steels Having High Toughness
LUO Haiwen(),SHEN Guohui
School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
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摘要: 

超高强韧钢同时拥有超高强度和优良韧性,因而在国防和民用工程机械领域中广泛应用。本文首先综述了各类型传统超高强韧合金钢的典型钢种、成分、性能及应用和发展历程,并重点阐述了各典型钢种的组织和强韧化机理;然后介绍了近年所研发的具有代表性的新型超高强韧钢的成分、组织、强韧化机理及力学性能;接着梳理了我国近年来由于快速发展的经济需求和地理、资源等特点,出现了对现役超高强韧钢进行升级换代的迫切需求,包括新型轻质装甲防护钢、大型球磨机用钢、高山隧道挖掘的盾构机刃具用钢以及石油工程机械中的高压压裂泵用钢等;最后介绍了作者团队近期在超高强韧钢的一些最新研究成果,并据此提出超高强韧钢未来发展的思路。

关键词 超高强钢韧性析出强化马氏体残余奥氏体    
Abstract

Ultra-high strength steels have been widely used in the critical engineering structures in both military and civilian applications due to the combination of ultra-high strength and excellent toughness. In this paper, firstly, the typical ultra-high strength steel grades that have been employed were introduced, and their compositions, mechanical properties, application and histories of development were summarized with the emphasis on their microstructures and strengthening/toughening mechanism; secondly, the latest progress on the emerging ultra-high strength steel grades was reviewed, including their compositions, microstructures, strengthening mechanism and mechanical properties; thirdly, the newly emerging demands on replacing the currently employed ultra-high strength steels in China were defined, including steels for low-density but ultra-strong armors, the large ball grinding mill, cutters of tunnel boring machine and high pressure fracturing pump; finally, recent research results on ultra-high strength and high-toughness medium Mn steel were presented, which overcame the trade-off of strength and toughness to a greater extent; on this basis, some suggestions were put forward for the future development of these steel grades to meet the urgent national demands.

Key wordsultra-high strength steel    toughness    precipitation strengthening    martensite    retained austenite
收稿日期: 2019-09-29     
ZTFLH:  TG142  
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(51831002);中央高校基本科研业务费专项基金项目(FRF-TP-18-002C2)
通讯作者: 罗海文     E-mail: luohaiwen@ustb.edu.cn
Corresponding author: Haiwen LUO     E-mail: luohaiwen@ustb.edu.cn
作者简介: 罗海文,男,1972年生,教授,博士

引用本文:

罗海文,沈国慧. 超高强高韧化钢的研究进展和展望[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(4): 494-512.
Haiwen LUO, Guohui SHEN. Progress and Perspective of Ultra-High Strength Steels Having High Toughness. Acta Metall Sin, 2020, 56(4): 494-512.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00328      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2020/V56/I4/494

SteelCMnSiCrNiMoVCoOtherFeRef.
H130.320.20.84.75-1.10.8--Bal.[7]
12Cr-9Ni-4Mo-2Cu0.010.320.1512.28.994.02--1.95Cu+0.87Ti+0.33AlBal.[10]
HY130-10.100.740.370.534.940.53---Bal.[11]
Si-Mn-Cr-Ni-Mo0.241.51.81.00.70.350.01-0.02Ti+0.05NbBal.[12]
4340-10.40.620.290.731.770.21---Bal.[13]
4340-20.390.610.240.671.460.17---Bal.[14]
4340-C-Si0.50.61.750.71.50.2---Bal.[15]
300M0.310.011.511.443.520.250.1--Bal.[16]
H110.390.621.205.07-1.330.54--Bal.[17]
18Ni3Al4Mo0.08---184--3Al+0.8Nb+0.01BBal.[18]
AF14100.160.160.051.9910.051.01-13.08-Bal.[19]
AerMet 1000.240.010.032.9911.21.18-13.4-Bal.[20]
18Ni(250)0.004---18.314.67-8.90.58TiBal.[21]
T2500.010.10.1-183.00.51.5Ti+0.1AlBal.[22]
W2500.006---18.9---4.2W+1.15Ti+0.083AlBal.[23]
15Ni6Mo4Cu1Ti0.03---156--1.01Ti+4CuBal.[24]
14Ni3Cr3Mo1.5Ti0.0060.020.032.8814.343.24--1.52TiBal.[25]
13Co-12Cr-5.6Mo---12.135.245.6-13.20.43TiBal.[26]
PH 13-8Mo0.05--12.58.02.15--1.0AlBal.[27]
Custom4650.02--11.811.01.0--1.7TiBal.[27]
Ferrium S530.21--10.05.52.0-141W+0.3VBal.[28]
表1  现役的典型超高强度合金钢的化学成分[7,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28] (mass fraction / %)
图1  AISI4340低合金超高强度钢显微组织的TEM和SEM像[12,29]
SteelYS / MPaUTS / MPaEL / %Hardness / HBAk (20 ℃) / JRef.
HY130-189697023--[11]
4340162717928.6536-[14]
4140102511001132040[30]
4130880980--16[32]
300M170519301059520[36]
30CrMnSiNi2A1400172010-75[37]
45CrNiMo1VA17802000854331[38]
35Si2Mn2MoVA1550185011-55[39]
4061700200011-50[40]
表2  主要低合金超高强韧钢的力学性能[11,14,30,32,36,37,38,39,40]
SteelYS / MPaUTS / MPaEL / %Hardness / HBAk (20 ℃) / JRef.
AerMet100176019932854341[20]
GC-19147016709-49[42]
AF1410152016551546961[43]
H-11167520069.657720[44]
HY1801345141316203140[44]
H-131397149311.245515.2[45]
DT3001500186011.5-58[46]
表3  典型二次硬化超高强韧钢的力学性能[20,42,43,44,45,46]
图2  不同温度回火后Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo高强钢中碳化物的TEM像[47]
SteelYS / MPaUTS / MPaEL / %Hardness / HBAk (20 ℃) / JRef.
18Ni3Al4Mo194721978.2--[18]
18Ni(250)1819185412.1948135[21]
T2501500186011.548158[22]
W250178018009-25[23]
15Ni6Mo4Cu1Ti178518939.552530[24]
14Ni3Cr3Mo1.5Ti1750182013.5496-[25]
表4  典型马氏体时效超高强韧钢的力学性能[18,21,22,23,24,25]
SteelYS / MPaUTS / MPaEL / %Hardness / HBAk (20 ℃) / JKIC / (MPa·m1/2)Ref.
PH 13-8Mo15001620104551580[27]
Custom4651703177914--71[27]
Ferrium S5315511986155431870[28]
PH 17-41161119910.0531162.3-[57]
PH 15-51150124016469-90[58]
表5  典型沉淀硬化超高强度不锈钢的力学性能[27,28,57,58]
图3  渗碳20CrMnMoAl钢经不同温度等温淬火并保温不同时间后表层的TEM像[66]
图4  高位错密度变形-配分(Q&P)钢的工程应力-应变曲线[72]
图5  第二相粒子与位错的相互作用机制示意图

Steel

Composition (mass fraction / %)

Precipitation

Ref.

CuNiMnAlTiCoMoCrVWNbSiBCFe
13Cr13CoNiMoTi-4.6-0.20.38133.413.2-----0.003Bal.Ni3(Ti, Al)+R'+α'[61]
5Ni2Al3Mn1.5Cu1.5532--1.5--1.50.07-0.010.05Bal.NiAl+Cu[74]
4Cu4Ni4MnAl4441------0.070.48-0.05Bal.Cu+NiAl[75]
MA_H_Al-311.81.3---------0.158Bal.NiMn+Ni2AlMn[76]
18Ni8Al2Ti12Cr-18-8.12.0-1.912.2------Bal.NiAl+Ni2TiAl[77]
7Ni10Cr8Co2Al-7.0-1.8-8.02.759.9-2.43----Bal.Laves+NiAl[78]
12Cr4Ni2Cu2Co2.24.10.610.030.532.10.5112.00.005-0.110.57-0.09Bal.Cu+MC+Ni3Ti[79]
9Ni12CrAlTi-9.05-0.70.35-2.012.1---0.05--Bal.NiAl+Ni3(Ti, Al)[80]
表6  典型超高强韧钢的化学成分及复合析出纳米粒子[61,74,75,76,77,78,79,80]
图6  超高强度高韧合金钢中纳米粒子的复合析出过程示意图

Steel

Composition (mass fraction / %)

YS

MPa

UTS

MPa

EL

%

Hardness

HB

Ak (20 ℃)

J

Ref.

CMnSiCrNiMoOtherFe
Armox 440T0.211.20.51.02.50.70.005BBal.1100150010420~48045 (-40 ℃)[91]
Armox 500T0.321.20.271.01.80.70.005BBal.125016008480~54032 (-40 ℃)[91]
Armox 600T0.471.00.41.53.00.70.003BBal.-20007570~64012 (-40 ℃)[91]
MIL-A461000.280.90.530.30.190.240.03Ti+0.18CuBal.1050175012480~54025 (-40 ℃)[92]
UHT 4400.251.40.61.20.50.350.002BBal.1150145014420~48016 (-40 ℃)[93]
HHA 5000.320.80.51.20.50.30.002BBal.1350164014477~53416 (-40 ℃)[93]
表7  典型超高强装甲钢的化学成分及性能[91,92,93]

Steel

Composition (mass fraction / %)

YS

MPa

UTS

MPa

EL

%

Hardness

HB

Ak (20 ℃)

J

Ref.

CMnSiCrNiMoOtherFe
Mn14Cr1.27140.51.7---Bal.500-50200~230176[94]
400V0.21.80.51.50.80.50.05NbBal.1000130012380~42030 (-40 ℃)[95]
500V0.31.60.51.51.00.50.05NbBal.130016508470~53025 (-25 ℃)[95]
JEFEH360A0.201.60.60.8-0.30.003BBal.1147120323.9388156[96]
JEFEH500A0.351.60.60.8-0.30.003BBal.1321151622.954365[96]
WNM3600.201.60.61.41.00.50.004BBal.-129013362~37958 (-20 ℃)[96]
Cr262.70.80.7261.51.00.7REBal.---65410[97]
表8  半自磨机衬板用钢的化学成分及性能[94,95,96,97]

Steel

Composition (mass fraction / %)

Hardness

HB

Ak (20 ℃)

J

CMnSiCrNiMoVOtherFe
HH3010.40.651.05.32-1.51.00.05Nb+0.11AlBal.65418
Wirth0.510.270.944.95-1.410.8-Bal.59511.1
6422 Steel0.390.690.210.821.460.260.0060.21Al+0.18CuBal.6541.96
DQ Steel0.510.270.944.95-1.410.8-Bal.615-
SL steel0.350.750.41.24.00.45-0.05AlBal.65415
H130.40.351.05.0-1.51.0-Bal.61511
表9  典型盾构机刀具用钢的化学成分及性能[99]

Steel

Composition (mass fraction / %)

YS

MPa

UTS

MPa

EL

%

Hardness

HB

Ak (20 ℃)

J

Ref.

CMnSiCrNiMoVFe
4330V0.300.80.20.91.80.450.1Bal.110011801636070[102,103]
42CrMo0.430.80.31.2-0.22-Bal.10451145--69[104]
43CrNi2MoV0.43-0.31.01.60.330.13Bal.972107016.5311~33679[105]
表10  典型压裂泵液力端用钢的化学成分及性能[102,103,104,105]
图7  不同钢板的工程应力-应变曲线[106,107]
图8  7Mn钢的工程应力-应变拉伸曲线、冷弯照片和防弹实验图
图9  典型超高强韧钢种的抗拉强度与冲击韧性范围及作者团队研发的7Mn钢性能[20,21,22,23,24,27,28,36,37,38,39,40,42,43,44,45,46,89,90,108]
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