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金属学报  2018, Vol. 54 Issue (5): 682-700    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00080
  金属材料的凝固专刊 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 |
偏晶合金凝固过程研究进展
赵九洲(), 江鸿翔
中国科学院金属研究所 沈阳 110016
Progress in the Solidification of Monotectic Alloys
Jiuzhou ZHAO(), Hongxiang JIANG
Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
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摘要: 

偏晶合金十分广泛,若能将其制成原位复合材料,如:弥散型复合材料、壳/核结构复合材料或第二相呈现纤维状排列的复合材料等,则其中许多具有优异性能,工业应用前景广阔。但该类合金凝固时首先发生液-液相变,生成2个互不混溶的液相,在常规的凝固条件下,极易形成相偏析严重乃至两相分层的凝固组织。近年来,偏晶合金凝固理论及凝固组织控制研究受到了材料科学领域的高度重视,人们在空间和地面上开展了大量实验,尝试了用电场、磁场、微合金化等方法控制偏晶合金凝固组织的可行性,并结合实验开展了深入的建模与模拟研究。本文综述了近年来有关偏晶合金凝固过程研究的进展,展望了本领域今后的发展趋势。

关键词 偏晶合金凝固热力学热物性参数模拟    
Abstract

Monotectic alloys or alloys with a miscibility gap in the liquid state are a broad kind of materials. Many of them have great potential applications in industry. However, these alloys have an essential drawback that the miscibility gap poses problems during solidification. When a homogeneous single phase liquid is cooled into the miscibility gap, the components are no longer miscible and two liquid phases develop. Generally, the liquid-liquid decomposition begins with the nucleation of the minority phase droplets. These droplets grow and coarsen then. They can also settle or float due to the specific gravity differences between phases and migrate due to the temperature gradient or concentration gradient. The motions of the droplets cause the formation of a microstructure with serious phase segregation. Researchs have been carried out to investigate the solidification process of monotectic alloys on ground as well as under the microgravity conditions in space. The feasibility of controlling the microstructures of monotectic alloys by using electric field, magnetic field, microalloying, etc. has been investigated. Meanwhile, plenty of efforts have been made to model and simulate the microstructure evolution of monotectic alloy during the L-L phase transformation. This article will review the research work in this field during the last few decades and propose some perspectives for future studies on the solidification process of monotectic alloys.

Key wordsmonotectic alloy    solidification    thermodynamic    thermophysical property    simulation
收稿日期: 2018-03-06     
ZTFLH:  TG14  
基金资助:资助项目 国家自然科学基金项目Nos.51771210、51471173和51501207,以及中国载人空间站项目No.TGJZ800-2-RW024
作者简介:

作者简介 赵九洲,男,1962年生,研究员,博士

引用本文:

赵九洲, 江鸿翔. 偏晶合金凝固过程研究进展[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(5): 682-700.
Jiuzhou ZHAO, Hongxiang JIANG. Progress in the Solidification of Monotectic Alloys. Acta Metall Sin, 2018, 54(5): 682-700.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00080      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2018/V54/I5/682

图1  二元偏晶合金体系摩尔混合自由能(ΔGm)与成分(xB)之间的关系曲线
图2  二元偏晶合金溶解度曲线(实线)和亚稳态分解曲线(虚线)示意图
图3  Al-5%Pb合金(质量分数)以5 mm/s速率连续凝固时凝固界面前沿试样中心轴上液相的温度(T)、组元互溶温度(Tb)和弥散相液滴的形核率随位置的变化曲线[131]
图4  Al-5%Pb合金(质量分数)以5 mm/s速率连续凝固时凝固界面前沿不同径向位置处弥散相液滴的最大形核率和对应位置的基体熔体的对流运动速度[96]
图5  Al-5%Pb合金(质量分数)以5 mm/s速率在不同强度磁场内连续凝固时凝固界面前沿基体熔体的对流运动速度分布[66]
图6  Al-5%Pb合金(质量分数)以5 mm/s速率连续凝固时凝固界面前沿弥散相液滴的最大形核率沿试样径向的变化[66]
图7  Al-5%Pb合金(质量分数)以5 mm/s速率连续凝固时弥散相液滴的体积分数沿试样径向的变化[96]
图8  不同直流电流作用下Al-7%Pb合金(质量分数)以8 mm/s速率连续凝固后的显微组织[63]
图9  脉冲电流作用下Bi-10%Cu-10%Sn合金和Cu-25%Bi-25%Sn合金(质量分数)以10 mm/s速率连续凝固后的显微组织[65]
图10  以10 mm/s速率连续凝固Al-5%Pb-xBi (x=0、0.10%,质量分数)合金的显微组织[180]
图11  Al-5.0%Pb-xBi (x=0、0.10%,质量分数)合金连续凝固过程中平均尺寸富Pb相液滴沿z方向和r方向Marangoni迁移速率和Stokes迁移速率在凝固界面前沿随位置的变化[180]
图12  Al-9.0%Bi-xTiC合金(质量分数)添加不同量TiC颗粒条件下的凝固组织[180]
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