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Acta Metall Sin  2020, Vol. 56 Issue (4): 444-458    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00427
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A Review of Research Status of Hydrogen Embrittlement for Automotive Advanced High-Strength Steels
LI Jinxu(),WANG Wei,ZHOU Yao,LIU Shenguang,FU Hao,WANG Zheng,KAN Bo
Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
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This paper overviewed the current research status and important results of the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of the representative steel types from 1st to 3rd generation advanced high-strength steel (AHSS): transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel, quenching & partitioning (QP) steel and medium manganese steel. The main conclusions are as follows: the HE sensitivity of TRIP steel is mainly reflected in the reduction of plasticity and the small loss of strength. The HE sensitivity of TWIP steel depends heavily on the strain rate, i.e., the HE susceptibility is significantly increased as the strain rate decreases. Deformation twin boundaries and ε/γ phase interfaces are generally prone to hydrogen-induced cracking, while Σ3 annealing twin boundaries are not. However, the ε/γ phase interfaces with Nishiyama-Wassermann orientation relationship, which is similar to the Σ3 twin boundaries, could hinder the propagation of hydrogen-induced cracks. HE sensitivity of QP steel is similar to that of TRIP steel. For medium manganese steel containing a large volume fraction of austenite phase, which result in a strong TRIP effect during deformation, the HE susceptibility represented by plasticity loss and strength loss is very high. For TRIP steel, QP steel and medium manganese steel with austenite structure, the main strategy to improve their hydrogen embrittlement is to control the morphology and distribution of austenite structure; for TWIP Steel, the measures to improve hydrogen embrittlement can be taken by controlling the prestrain rate and Al Alloying.

Key words:  AHSS      TRIP steel      TWIP steel      hydrogen embrittlement     
Received:  11 December 2019     
ZTFLH:  TG14,TG17  
Fund: National Natural Science Foundation of China(U1760203);National Natural Science Foundation of China(51571029)
Corresponding Authors:  Jinxu LI     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

LI Jinxu,WANG Wei,ZHOU Yao,LIU Shenguang,FU Hao,WANG Zheng,KAN Bo. A Review of Research Status of Hydrogen Embrittlement for Automotive Advanced High-Strength Steels. Acta Metall Sin, 2020, 56(4): 444-458.

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Fig.1  Engineering stress-strain curves of TRIP 780 steel under different hydrogen charging conditions (TRIP—transformation induced plasticity, CT—cryogenic and tempered)[15]
Fig.2  Crack propagate along M/F or M/B interface in Fe-1.6Mn-0.4Si-0.17C-(0.5~2)Al TRIP steel (M—martensite, F/B—ferrite or bainite, TD—transverse direction, RD—rolling direction)[24](a) crack originates from M (b) crack propagate to M changed direction
Fig.3  Hydrogen induced crack initiation of Fe-18Mn-0.6C TWIP steel at strain rate of 1×10-5 s-1 (TWIP—twinning-induced plasticity)[40]Color online(a) SEM image (b) band contrast and red Σ3?grain boundaries map(c) misorientation angle along the direction of the green line in Fig.3b
Fig.4  Hydrogen induced crack initiation diagram of Fe-18Mn-0.6C TWIP steel at strain rate of 1×10-6 s-1[40]Color online(a) SEM image (b) phase distribution map(c) Nishiyama orientation in red box of the ε/γ interface in Fig.4b
Fig.5  Tensile curves of dynamic charging of Fe-18Mn-0.6C steel under two strain rates[40]Color online
Fig.6  Engineering stress-strain curves of QP980 steel with different hydrogen contents (RT—room temperature, QP—quenching & partitioning)[73]
Fig.7  Hydrogen-induced cracking nucleation and propagation in the QP steel[73]Color online(a) SEM micrograph near the main crack(b) ND-IPF image of the area near the main crack, where the white boxes indicatethe microcracks located in the martensite block (ND—normal direction, TA—tensile axis)
Fig.8  Stress-strain curves (a) and EBSD maps (b) of cold-rolled and hot-rolled medium-manganese steels (HRA—hot-rolled and annealed, CRA—cold-rolled and annealed, HRAH—H-charged HRA, CRAH—H-charged CRA)[98]Color online
Fig.9  Tensile curves of medium manganese steels before and after hydrogen charging during tempering (a) and annealing (b)
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[13] Yongwei SUN,Jizhi CHEN,Jun LIU. STUDY ON HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT SUSCEPTIBILITY OF 1000 MPa GRADE 0Cr16Ni5Mo STEEL[J]. 金属学报, 2015, 51(11): 1315-1324.
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