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Acta Metall Sin  2019, Vol. 55 Issue (8): 967-975    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00010
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Corrosion Behavior of Ultrafine Grained Pure Ti Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing
Xin LI1,2,Yuecheng DONG1,3,4(),Zhenhua DAN1,3,Hui CHANG1,Zhigang FANG4,Yanhua GUO1
1. College of Materials Science and Engineering/Tech Institute for Advanced Materials, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China
2. Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China
3. State Key Laboratory of Metal Material for Marine Equipment and Application, Anshan 114000, China
4. Naval Research Institute, Beijing 100000, China
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Titanium alloy has extensive applications in the field of chemical, biomedical and marine engineering due to high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Ultrafine-grained (UFG) and nanocrystalline (NC) materials with unique properties processed by severe plastic deformation are widely studied in recent decades. In comparison with large number researches on mechanical behavior of UFG/NC materials, corrosion resistance is rarely studied and results indicated inconsistent, even within the same alloy system. In this work, ultrafine-grained pure Ti was fabricated by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) with 2~4 passes. Grain size, crystallographic texture and grain boundary character distribution of samples were characterized by EBSD. At the same time, dynamic potential polarization and EIS methods were used to study corrosion resistance in simulated seawater. Results showed that grain size and basal texture strength of pure Ti decreased after 2 ECAP passes, but the fraction of low angle grain boundary (LAGB) increased drastically. With increasing of extrusion passes, grain size and the fraction of LAGB decreased for samples, meanwhile, basal texture strength increased at first and then decreased. Electrochemical experiments indicated that all UFG titanium have better corrosion resistance than coarse one. On the other hand, it was founded that corrosion resistance didn't increased monotonously with the development of ECAP passes, and 3 ECAP passes displayed optimum. This could be attributed to the interaction of grain size, basal texture and grain boundary character distribution, and basal texture strength occupied the domination.

Key words:  pure Ti      corrosion behavior      grain size      texture      grain boundary character distribution     
Received:  15 January 2019     
ZTFLH:  TG172.5  
Fund: Supported by National Defense Basic Scientific Research Program of China((No.JCKY08414C020));State Key Laboratory Open Source for Metal Materials and Applications for Marine Equipment((No.SKLMEA-K201807));Financial Assistance from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation((No.2017M623392));Financial Assistance from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation((No.SJCX19_0324));Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province
Corresponding Authors:  Yuecheng DONG     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Xin LI,Yuecheng DONG,Zhenhua DAN,Hui CHANG,Zhigang FANG,Yanhua GUO. Corrosion Behavior of Ultrafine Grained Pure Ti Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing. Acta Metall Sin, 2019, 55(8): 967-975.

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Fig.1  EBSD figures of coarse grain Ti (CG-Ti) (a) and ultrafine-grained Ti (UFG-Ti) processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) for 2 passes (ECAP 2P) (b), 3 passes (ECAP 3P) (c) and 4 passes (ECAP 4P) (d) (ED—extrusion direction, ND—normal direction)Color online
Fig.2  {0002} pole figures of CG-Ti (a), ECAP 2P (b), ECAP 3P (c) and ECAP 4P (d) (TD—transverse direction)Color online
Fig.3  Grain boundaries (a, c, e, g) and misorientation distributions (b, d, f, h) of CG-Ti (a, b), ECAP 2P (c, d), ECAP 3P (e, f) and ECAP 4P (g, h) (HAGB—high angle grain boundary, LAGB—low angle grain boundary)Color online
Fig.4  Polarization curves of CG-Ti, ECAP 2P, ECAP 3P and ECAP 4P












ECAP 2P-0.222-0.0150.2930.1860.00162
ECAP 3P-0.2860.1350.1580.1360.00118
ECAP 4P-0.2130.1290.2190.1790.00155
Table 1  Electrochemical properties of CG-Ti, ECAP 2P, ECAP 3P and ECAP 4P
Fig.5  Nyquist spectra of CG-Ti, ECAP 2P, ECAP 3P and ECAP 4P in 3.5%NaCl solution
Fig.6  Equivalent electric circuit for EIS data analysis(Rs—solution resistance, Rp—polarization resistance, CPE—capacitance)





10-5 S·sn·cm2



105 Ω·cm2


ECAP 2P4.3081.9640.9074.2490.001037
ECAP 3P4.6851.8870.91116.6200.001892
ECAP 4P4.3251.7680.8565.6360.001116
Table 2  Electrochemical parameters of EIS fitting for CG-Ti, ECAP 2P, ECAP 3P and ECAP 4P
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