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Acta Metall Sin  2018, Vol. 54 Issue (3): 470-484    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00460
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Numerical Simulation Analysis of Continuous Casting Cladding Forming for Cu-Al Composites
Xinhua LIU1,2, Huadong FU1,2, Xingqun HE1, Xintong FU1, Yanqing JIANG1, Jianxin XIE1,2()
1 Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2 Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing (MOE), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
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Abstract  

High performance Cu-Al composites have widely applied in aviation, aerospace and other fields, at the same time the continuous casting as one of composite forming technologies has been also developed in recent years. Obviously, it is an effective and cheap way to numerically simulate the solidification process of short process continuous casting for manufacturing Cu-Al composites before fabricating them. To meet the need of simulation, in this work, a numerical method for theoretically describing the Cu-Al composite forming in continuous casting processes was proposed. The vertical continuous casting of copper clad aluminum bar billet and the horizontal continuous casting of copper and aluminum composite plate were performed. Based on this method, the steady state temperature fields in solidification processes in the above two kinds of casting technologies were numerically simulated by using proCAST software package. In this work the effects of the theoretical parameters on the steady state temperature fields and then on the performance of Cu-Al composites fabricated by using the above two casting technologies were carefully discussed. It is found that the experimental and simulated results are in good agreement. For the cases of the copper clad aluminum bar billet with a cross section of 100 mm×100 mm, and the copper or aluminum plate with a thickness of 20 mm and a width of 75 mm (coat thicknesses of 4~7 mm), the feasible parameters for producing high performance Cu-Al composites, for examples, are as follows: for the former the temperature of copper liquid is 1250 ℃, the temperature of aluminum liquid is 750 ℃, the length of crystallizer is 200 mm, the length of graphite mandrel tube is 290 mm, the flux of the first cooling water is 1600~2000 L/h, the flux of the second cooling water is 900~1300 L/h, the distance from the second cooling water to the exit of crystallizer is 30 mm, and the withdrawing speed is 60~80 mm/min. For the latter the temperature of copper melt was 1250 ℃, the temperatures of aluminum melt are 760~800 ℃, the withdrawing speed is 40~80 mm/min, and the length of aluminum duct is 20 mm.

Key words:  Cu-Al composites      continuous casting composite forming      temperature field      numerical simulation     
Received:  01 November 2017     
Fund: Supported by National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No.2013AA030706), Beijing Science and Technology (No.Z141100004214003) and Science and Technology Cooperation Project of Yunnan Province (No.2015IB012)

Cite this article: 

Xinhua LIU, Huadong FU, Xingqun HE, Xintong FU, Yanqing JIANG, Jianxin XIE. Numerical Simulation Analysis of Continuous Casting Cladding Forming for Cu-Al Composites. Acta Metall Sin, 2018, 54(3): 470-484.

URL: 

https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00460     OR     https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/Y2018/V54/I3/470

Fig.1  Schematic diagram of the vertical core-filling continuous casting (VCFCC) process for fabricating copper clad aluminum (CCA) composites (1—aluminum liquid holding furnace, 2—aluminum liquid, 3—graphite mandrel tube, 4—copper liquid holding furnace, 5—copper liquid, 6—graphite casting mold, 7—crystallizer, 8—secondary cooling water, 9—CCA composite casting rod, 10—drawing machine)
Fig.2  Geometry of the VCFCC processing model for fabricating CCA composites (1—graphite casting mold, 2—tcopper sheath, 3—graphite mandrel tube, 4—water-cooling copper chiller of crystallizer, 5—aluminum core, 6—copper liquid, 7—aluminum liquid, 8—crucible, L0—length of crystallizer; L1—copper solidification position; L2—aluminum solidification position; L3—length of compound zone) (a) external form of 3D Geometric model (b) internal form of 3D Geometric model
Fig.3  Schematics of the boundary conditions (left) and interface conditions (right) for simulation of the steady-state temperature in VCFCC processing for manufacturing CCA composites (1~6 are the boundary conditions for simulation of temperature of aluminum liquid, temperature of copper liquid, primary cooling water, secondary cooling water and geometric symmetry plane, respectively. I~IV are the interfaces between the aluminum core and the graphite mandrel tube, between the solidified copper sheath and the graphite mandrel tube, between the solidified copper sheath and the graphite cast mould, and between the graphite cast mould and the copper chiller of crystallizer, respectively)
Fig.4  Simulated steady state temperature field in solidification process of VCFCC for producing CCA composites, using proCAST software package (TAl—aluminum liquid temperature) (a) temperature nephogram (b) solidification map
L0 / mm s / mm h / mm v / (mm?min-1) L2 / mm
80 50 180 130 132.0
100 50 180 130 120.8
100 10 180 130 72.2
100 50 180 130 70.8
100 50 180 100 93.8
100 50 190 130 106.9
150 50 180 130 47.7
150 10 180 130 47.5
150 10 240 130 8.1
150 10 180 100 30.5
150 10 240 100 -12.2
200 50 270 130 99.8
200 50 310 100 35.4
200 10 270 130 48.3
200 10 310 100 16.8
250 50 310 130 103.5
250 50 380 100 16.2
250 10 310 130 64.5
250 10 380 100 -5.8
Table 1  Effect of the length of crystallizer on solidified position of copper and aluminum
h
mm
Q1
Lh-1
Q2
Lh-1
TAl
v
mmmin-1
L1
mm
L2
mm
L3
mm
Ts
250 1600 900 750 60 73.5 78.15 67.08 740
270 1600 900 750 60 73.5 69.26 47.61 710
290 1600 900 750 60 73.5 35.82 27.92 685
310 1600 900 750 60 73.5 18.62 5.93 650
330 1600 900 750 60 73.4 6.43 -3.24 630
Table 2  Effect of length of mandrel tube on solidified position of copper and aluminum
No. h
mm
Q1
Lh-1
Q2
Lh-1
TAl
v
mmmin-1
L1
mm
L2
mm
L3
mm
Ts
1 290 1400 900 750 60 72.5 37.94 28.95 690
2 290 1600 900 750 60 74.0 35.82 27.92 685
3 290 1800 900 750 60 74.5 34.95 26.83 683
4 290 2000 900 750 60 74.5 33.86 26.82 680
Table 3  Effect of flux of primary cooling water on solidified position of copper and aluminum
No. h
mm
Q1
Lh-1
Q2
Lh-1
TAl
v
mmmin-1
L1
mm
L2
mm
L3
mm
Ts
1 290 1600 700 750 60 75.5 35.94 27.93 690
2 290 1600 900 750 60 75.0 35.82 27.92 685
3 290 1600 1100 750 60 73.5 35.12 26.83 687
4 290 1600 1300 750 60 73.5 34.95 26.83 684
5 290 1600 1500 750 60 73.5 33.84 25.83 680
Table 4  Effect of flux of secondary cooling water on solidified position of copper and aluminum
No. h
mm
Q1
Lh-1
Q2
Lh-1
TAl
v
mmmin-1
L1
mm
L2
mm
L3
mm
Ts
1 290 1600 900 750 40 55.5 -11.51 0 -
2 290 1600 900 750 60 75.0 35.82 27.92 685
3 290 1600 900 750 80 80.0 59.07 51.85 725
4 290 1600 900 750 100 81.0 76.93 62.97 770
5 290 1600 900 750 120 82.5 87.49 70.39 790
Table 5  Effect of continuous casting speed on solidified position of copper and aluminum
Fig.5  Cross section morphologies of CCA samples manufactured in different cooling water flows (a) 1000 L/h (b) 1600 L/h (c) 2000 L/h
Fig.6  Schematic of horizontal continuous casting process for fabricating Cu-Al composite slab
Fig.7  Geometry of horizontal continuous casting for fabricating Cu-Al composite slab
Fig.8  Effects of length of aluminum liquid ducts on solidification position of copper and aluminum in horizontal continuous casting as shown in Fig.7 (a1, a2) 10 mm (b1, b2) 20 mm (c1, c2) 30 mm
Fig.9  Effects of casting speeds on solidification position of copper and aluminum in horizontal continuous casting as shown in Fig.7 (a1, a2) 40 mm/min (b1, b2) 60 mm/min (c1, c2) 80 mm/min (d1, d2) 100 mm/min (e1, e2) 120 mm/min
Fig.10  Effects of temperatures of aluminum liquid on solidification position of copper and aluminum in horizontal continuous casting as shown in Fig.7 (a1, a2) 760 ℃ (b1, b2) 780 ℃ (c1, c2) 800 ℃ (d1, d2) 820 ℃ (e1, e2) 850 ℃
Fig.11  Morphologies of binding layers (a1~d1) and surface quality (a2~d2) of slabs with casting speeds of 40 mm/min (a1, a2), 60 mm/min (b1, b2), 80 mm/min (c1, c2) and 100 mm/min (d1, d2) in horizontal continuous casting as shown in Fig.7
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