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Acta Metall Sin  2017, Vol. 53 Issue (5): 567-574    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2016.00307
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Effect of Bonding Temperature on the Interfacial Micro-structure and Performance of Mild Steel/Austenite Stainless Steel Diffusion-Bonded Joint
Dawei WANG,Shichao XIU()
School of Mechanical Engineering & Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
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The Q235A mild steel and AISI304 austenite stainless steel were subjected to solid diffusion welding by vacuum diffusion bonding approach to investigate the influence of welding temperature on the interfacial morphology, microstructural constituents and mechanical properties. The results show that the single ferrite layer (zone II) and carbon-enriched layer (zone III) were formed nearby the bonding interface of Q235A mild steel and AISI304 austenite stainless steel, and heterogeneous microstructure on both sides of interface formed a common grain boundary by diffusion. The strength and toughness of the bonded joint reached the highest values, for welding temperature of approximately 850 ℃, welding pressure of beyond 10 MPa, and welding time of approximately 60 min, which was larger than those of the Q235A mild steel layer. Otherwise, the Cr23C6 carbide easily formed at a relatively lower temperature (≤800 ℃), whereas the secondary carbides and intermetallic compounds formed at a relatively higher temperature (≥900 ℃). Both cases would dramatically deteriorate the strength-toughness of the bonded joint. Therefore, it was proposed that the brittle precipitate phases can be effectively avoided by controlling the welding temperature to approximately 850 ℃, thus ensuring the resulting performance of the bonded joint.

Key words:  mild steel      austenite stainless steel      vacuum diffusion bonding      interfacial microstructure      carbide      intermetallic compound     
Received:  18 July 2016     
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51375083)

Cite this article: 

Dawei WANG,Shichao XIU. Effect of Bonding Temperature on the Interfacial Micro-structure and Performance of Mild Steel/Austenite Stainless Steel Diffusion-Bonded Joint. Acta Metall Sin, 2017, 53(5): 567-574.

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Material Cr Ni C Si Mn P S Fe
AISI304 18.19 8.34 0.05 0.47 1.22 0.03 0.02 Bal.
Q235A - - 0.22 0.30 0.43 0.04 0.05 Bal.
Table 1  Chemical compositions of AISI304 stainless steel and Q235A mild steel (mass fraction / %)
Fig.1  EBSD image near the Q235A mild steel/AISI304 stainless steel diffusion-bonding interface at welding temperature of 850 ℃ (Green line: small angle grain boundary, θ=2°~15°.Black line: high angle grain boundary, θ>15°)
Fig.2  OM images of the Q235A mild steel/AISI304 stainless steel diffusion-boned joint at different temperatures (I—ferrite and pearlite, II—single ferrite, III—fine-grained austenite, IV—coarse-grained austenite) (a) 800 ℃ (b) 850 ℃ (c) 900 ℃
Fig.3  Low (a) and high (b) magnified SEM images and XRD spectra (c, d) of the Q235A mild steel/AISI304 stainless steel at diffusion-bonded joint at welding temperature of 900 ℃
Point C O Si Cr Mn Fe Ni
A 0.05 0.25 0.11 9.24 0.77 88.75 0.82
B 0.08 0.40 0.13 9.46 0.79 88.02 1.02
C 0.09 0.35 0.14 9.30 0.80 88.20 1.12
Table 2  EDS results of points A~C in Fig.3b (mass fraction / %)
Fig.7  Element distributions of the Q235A mild steel/AISI304 stainless steel diffusion-boned joint at temperatures of 850 ℃ (a) and 900 ℃ (b)
Fig.5  Microhardness distributions of the Q235A mild steel/AISI304 stainless steel diffusion-boned interface at different temperatures
Fig.6  Tensile specimens of the Q235A mild steel/AISI304 stainless steel diffusion-boned joint at different temperatures
Sample σb σs δ Ak
MPa MPa % (Jcm-2)
AISI304 785 320 49.5 180.0
Q235A 420 235 29.0 120.0
1# (800 ℃) 425±1 240±1 16.0±0.2 78.8±0.5
2# (850 ℃) 425±1 240±1 28.5±0.3 119.2±0.5
3# (900 ℃) 440±2 245±2 18.9±0.3 79.4±0.5
Table 3  Room temperature mechanical properties of base metals and three samples
Fig.7  Low (a, c, e) and corresponding high (circle area) (b, d, f) magnified fracture features of impact samples of Q235A mild steel/AISI304 stainless steel diffusion-bonding joint at welding temperatures of 800 ℃ (a, b), 850 ℃ (c, d) and 900 ℃ (e, f)
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