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Acta Metall Sin  2017, Vol. 53 Issue (3): 335-344    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2016.00284
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Research on the Collaborative Effect of Plastic Deformation and Solution Treatment in the Intergranular Corrosion Property of Austenite Stainless Steel
Xiaosong ZHANG1,Yong XU1,2,3(),Shihong ZHANG1,Ming CHENG1,Yonghao ZHAO2,Qiaosheng TANG3,Yuexia DING3
1 Institute of Metal Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
2 School of Materials and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210016, China
3 Jiangsu Huayang Metal Pipes Co. Ltd., Zhenjiang 212400, China
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AISI 304 austenite stainless steel was applied extensively in the modern industry due to its good properties on mechanics and corrosion resistance. However, there is severe intergranular corrosion when the AISI 304 was working at the temperature 420~850 ℃ called sensitizing temperature. This phenomenon was more obvious with increase of strain. In addition, this effect can not be removed completely even with the heat treatment subsequently. In present work, the influence of solution treatment and plastic deformation on the intergranular corrosion property of AISI 304 was investigated. The specimens subjected to different strain were obtained by the uniaxial tensile tests at room temperature. XRD was used to measure the fraction of martensitic phase which was induced by deformation. Optical metal lographic microscope was applied to observe the evolution of microstructure. The influence of various deformation values, solution temperature and holding time on intergranular corrosion was quantitative analyzed by electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (EPR) method. Experimental results showed that the degree of the intergranular corrosion increased with the increase of deformation, and with the decrease of solution temperature and holding time. It is indicated that since the solubility of carbon in martensite and austenite is discrepant, the content of carbon in the grains recrystallized is discrepant too. The more martensite is transformed, the more chromium carbide is formed in the grain boundary after sensitization. This phenomenon causes poor intergranular corrosion resistance due to the lack of chromium. In addition, the carbon segregation which is caused by plastic deformation will relieve with the rise of solution temperature and holding time. It is because that the carbon atom is more active at higher temperature, and the distribution of carbon is more homogeneous with the extended holding time. Then the quantity of chromium carbide will decrease in solution treatment process. Consequently the chromium depletion will be mitigated. From the above, a uniform solution treatment condition is not suitable for austenite stainless steel with the effect of martensitic transformation in cold working. Flexible scheme can be employed to insure better combination property of products.

Key words:  austenite stainless steel      plastic deformation      martensitic transformation      solution treatment      sensitization      intergranular corrosion     
Received:  05 July 2016     
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51304186) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No.2016M590454)

Cite this article: 

Xiaosong ZHANG,Yong XU,Shihong ZHANG,Ming CHENG,Yonghao ZHAO,Qiaosheng TANG,Yuexia DING. Research on the Collaborative Effect of Plastic Deformation and Solution Treatment in the Intergranular Corrosion Property of Austenite Stainless Steel. Acta Metall Sin, 2017, 53(3): 335-344.

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Fig.1  Schematic of heat treatment process method
Fig.2  XRD spectra of AISI 304 under uniaxial tensile experiment (a) and volume fraction of martensite in the deformation (b)
γ (fcc) α' (bcc) ε (hcp)
[hkl] (sinθ)/λ f [hkl] (sinθ)/λ f [hkl] (sinθ)/λ f
[111] 2.4099 17.55 [110] 2.4571 17.39 [100] 2.2726 18.00
[200] 2.7681 16.37 [200] 3.4724 14.51 [101] 2.5772 17.00
[220] 3.9324 13.46 [211] 4.2574 12.86 [102] 3.3325 14.84
[311] 4.6086 12.27 [220] 4.8263 11.90
Table 1  Atomic scattering factors (f) of AISI 304 under X-Ray
Fig.3  Method to read and calculate the sensitization (Ra) using the electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (EPR) curve (OCP—open circuit potential, Ia—activation current, Ir—reactivation current, Ra=Ir/Ia)
γ (fcc) α' (bcc) ε (hcp)
[hkl] P [hkl] P [hkl] P
[111] 8 [110] 12 [100] 6
[200] 6 [200] 6 [101] 12
[220] 12 [211] 24 [102] 12
[311] 24 [220] 12
Table 2  Multiplicity factors (P) for the phases present in AISI 304
γ (fcc) α' (bcc) ε (hcp)
[hkl] 2θ / (°) DWF [hkl] 2θ / (°) DWF [hkl] 2θ / (°) DWF
[111] 43.6 0.963 [110] 44.5 0.961 [100] 41.0 0.967
[200] 50.5 0.951 [200] 64.7 0.925 [101] 46.8 0.958
[220] 74.6 0.904 [211] 82.0 0.889 [102] 61.8 0.930
[311] 90.5 0.871 [220] 96.1 0.860
Table 3  Debye-Waller factors (DWF) of AISI 304
Fig.4  Polarization curves of specimen under different quantity of deformation
(a) 0 deformation,1000 ℃ for 1 h
(b) 30% deformation,1000 ℃ for 1 h
(c) 50% deformation,1000 ℃ for 1 h
(d) 0 deformation,1150 ℃ for 1 h
(e) 30% deformation,1150 ℃ for 1 h
(f) 50% deformation, 1150 ℃ for 1 h
Fig.5  Sensitization degree under different solution treatment temperatures and times
Fig.6  OM images of samples under 0 (a), 30% (b) and 50% (c) deformations at solution treatment temperature 1000 ℃ for 0.5 h
Fig.7  OM images of samples under 0 (a), 30% (b) and 50% (c) deformations at solution treatment temperature 1000 ℃ for 0.5 h, then sensitization at 650 ℃ for 2 h
Fig.8  OM images of samples under 30% deformation at different solution treatment temperatures and times
(a) 950 ℃ for 0.5 h (b) 950 ℃ for 1 h (c) 1150 ℃ for 0.5 h (d) 1150 ℃ for 1 h
Fig.9  OM images of EPR samples under 30% deformation at different solution treatment temperatures and times, then sensitization at 650 ℃ for 2 h
(a) 950 ℃ for 0.5 h (b) 950 ℃ for 1 h (c) 1150 ℃ for 0.5 h (d) 1150 ℃ for 1 h
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