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金属学报  2019, Vol. 55 Issue (9): 1115-1132    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00142
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国内变形高温合金研制进展
杜金辉1,吕旭东1,2(),董建新3,孙文儒4,毕中南1,2,赵光普1,邓群1,崔传勇4,马惠萍1,张北江1
1. 钢铁研究总院高温材料研究所 北京 100081
2. 钢铁研究总院高温合金新材料北京市重点实验室 北京 100081
3. 北京科技大学材料科学与工程学院 北京 100083
4. 中国科学院金属研究所 沈阳 110016
Research Progress of Wrought Superalloys in China
DU Jinhui1,LV Xudong1,2(),DONG Jianxin3,SUN Wenru4,BI Zhongnan1,2,ZHAO Guangpu1,DENG Qun1,CUI Chuanyong4,MA Huiping1,ZHANG Beijiang1
1. High-Temperature Materials Institute, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081, China
2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced High Temperature Materials, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081, China
3. School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
4. Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
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摘要: 

变形高温合金是指通过铸造-变形工艺生产的高温合金,包括盘、板、棒、丝、带、管等产品,该类产品广泛用于航空、航天、能源、石化、核电等工业领域。本文介绍了国内变形高温合金近10年的最新进展,分别从变形高温合金的制备工艺流程,GH4169G、GH4169D、GH4065、GH4068等新合金的研制,以及FGH4096的变形化、NGH5011的氮化、In718合金的3D打印等新技术3个方面展开论述。

关键词 变形高温合金冶炼锻造探伤3D打印    
Abstract

Wrought superalloys are high temperature alloys produced by casting-forging-hot rolling-cold drawing, including disc, plate, bar, wire, tape, pipe etc. These products are widely used in aviation, aerospace, energy, petrochemical, nuclear power and other industrial fields. In this paper, domestic progress of wrought superalloys in recent ten years was reviewed, including advances in fabrication process, research in new alloys (GH4169G, GH4169D, GH4065 and GH4068 alloy et al.) and new techniques (deforming of FGH4096 alloy, nitriding of NGH5011 alloy and 3D printing of In718 alloy et al.).

Key wordswrought superalloy    melting    forging    inspection    3D printing
收稿日期: 2019-05-05     
ZTFLH:  TG132.2  
基金资助:国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2010CB631203);中国博士后科学基金项(2005037323)
通讯作者: 吕旭东     E-mail: lxdong0700@hotmail.com
Corresponding author: Xudong LV     E-mail: lxdong0700@hotmail.com
作者简介: 杜金辉,男,1966年生,教授,博士

引用本文:

杜金辉,吕旭东,董建新,孙文儒,毕中南,赵光普,邓群,崔传勇,马惠萍,张北江. 国内变形高温合金研制进展[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1115-1132.
Jinhui DU, Xudong LV, Jianxin DONG, Wenru SUN, Zhongnan BI, Guangpu ZHAO, Qun DENG, Chuanyong CUI, Huiping MA, Beijiang ZHANG. Research Progress of Wrought Superalloys in China. Acta Metall Sin, 2019, 55(9): 1115-1132.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00142      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2019/V55/I9/1115

图1  真空感应熔炼流槽优化前后的对比
图2  真空自耗过程的传热示意图
图3  铸锭一次、二次树枝晶枝晶间距(PDAS和SDAS)的分布状态
Diameter of ingot / mmRange of SDAS / μmAverage of SDAS / μmK
40680~160116.31.410
50898~161132.21.618
表1  不同锭型纵截面中心部位二次枝晶间距及Ti元素偏析系数(K)比较
图4  直径406和508 mm的GH4720Li合金铸锭中心部位纵向高倍组织
TreatmentMass fraction of Ti in dendrite arm / %Mass fraction of Ti in interdendritic / %K
Before homogeneous3.986.371.601
Schedule 14.715.121.087
Schedule 24.645.251.131
Schedule 34.794.861.015
表2  经不同均匀化制度处理后Ti元素的偏析系数对比
图5  GH4720Li合金快锻开坯数值模拟
图6  GH4720Li合金径锻开坯数值模拟
图7  直径2100 mm超大型GH4706合金涡轮盘锻件实物照片
图8  各种残余应力测量方法的测量穿透与空间分辨率[31]
图9  GH4169合金热力耦合作用后γ"相变体选择行为与晶粒取向的关系[33]
图10  涡轮盘超声C扫图

Sample No.

Condition

Clutter amplitude

Bottom wave range before changeBottom wave range after changeBottom wave lowered range
1#Rolling state≤10%83%83%0%
3#990 ℃ solution≤10%-68%15%
4#1020 ℃ solution≤10%-52%31%
5#1050 ℃ solution≤10%-38%47%
表3  不同固溶温度热处理试样的局部超声杂波和底波损失对比[37,38,39]
图11  GH4169D和GH4169合金经标准热处理后的组织[42]
AlloyCoCrWMoAlTiNbFeNiRef.
GH406513.0016.004.004.002.103.700.701.00Bal.[46]
GH474210.4014.15-5.032.512.562.620.53Bal.[47]
GH4169G-18.77-3.120.481.055.20Bal.52.65[48]
FGH409612.9616.014.014.022.213.750.750.20Bal.[49]
GH428210.0020.00-8.501.502.10--Bal.[50]
GH414111.0019.00-10.001.503.10--Bal.[50]
GH473813.5019.00-4.301.503.00--Bal.[51]
GH458611.6818.093.058.111.653.31--Bal.[52]
GH4720Li14.9616.031.232.982.535.01--Bal.[52]
GH497515.587.9610.221.185.012.491.660.10Bal.[52]
GH41691.0019.00-3.000.501.105.20Bal.53.00[52]
表4  高性能变形高温合金涡轮盘材料化学成分对照表[46,47,48,49,50,51,52]
图12  时效强化钴基合金在900 ℃退火72 h的TEM像[60]
图13  GH4068合金的成分设计思路[59]
图14  不同蠕变条件下GH4068合金的变形机制[65]
图15  GH4068合金中温区蠕变变形组织[65]
图16  FGH4096电渣重熔连续定向凝固铸锭(直径270 mm)中部宏观低倍组织[68]
图17  FGH4096合金定向凝固铸锭R/2处微观组织(R为铸锭半径)[68]
图18  变形FGH4096合金等温锻造涡轮盘锻件(直径630 mm)纵剖面微观组织[68]

Alloy and condition

Room temperature tensile1100 ℃ tensile1100 ℃, 30 MPa endurance life / h
σb / MPaδ / %σb / MPaδ / %
NGH5011+pretreatment96117.014120.568
NGH50118907.511514.059
GH323083456.57695.06
GH353686647.070 (extrapolation)--
MGH956 thick66015.0947.0>1000
MGH956 thin76815.0837.050
表5  各种合金力学性能对比[60]
图19  增材制造3D-In718燃气涡轮盘和整体叶环

Sample and standard

Room temperature tensile650 ℃ tensile
σs / MPaσb / MPaδ / %ψ / %σs / MPaσb / MPaδ / %ψ / %

Anatomical part

1266144817.530107011901228
1265144417.533108012001322
Forging standard≥1140≥1340≥12.0≥15≥930≥1100≥12≥15
表6  增材制造3D-In718燃气涡轮盘力学性能
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