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金属学报  2018, Vol. 54 Issue (11): 1537-1552    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00360
  材料与工艺 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 |
钛合金粉末热等静压近净成形研究进展
徐磊(), 郭瑞鹏, 吴杰, 卢正冠, 杨锐
中国科学院金属研究所 沈阳 110016
Progress in Hot Isostatic Pressing Technology ofTitanium Alloy Powder
Lei XU(), Ruipeng GUO, Jie WU, Zhengguan LU, Rui YANG
Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
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摘要: 

本文简述了近年来国内外钛合金粉末热等静压近净成形的研究现状和应用进展情况,从典型低温钛合金研制、高温钛合金研制、钛铝金属间化合物研制、粉末致密化的有限元仿真4个方面对中国科学院金属研究所在钛合金粉末冶金近净成形领域的主要研究进展加以简要介绍,并对该技术未来的发展趋势进行了展望。

关键词 钛合金粉末冶金氢泵叶轮热等静压近净成形    
Abstract

The research status and application of powder metallurgy (PM) titanium alloys in connection with near net shape forming technology using hot isostatic pressing (HIP) are reviewed in this paper. A brief summary of historic developments with production of clean prealloyed powder and the use of computer simulation techniques in powder densification as important milestones is presented first. The bulk of the paper is concerned with progress made in the last 15 years, especially in the last decade, citing examples from the authors' group. Four types of alloys are covered: a cryogenic titanium alloy, Ti-5Al-2.5Sn with extra-low interstitial (ELI), which is used to make impeller for hydrogen pump of rocket engine, a high temperature titanium alloy Ti55, which is intended for long term service at 550 ℃ in engine applications, and two Ti-Al based intermetallic compounds including both γ-TiAl and an orthorhombic alloy based on Ti2AlNb. Comparisons in mechanical property were made between the PM alloys and their wrought and cast versions wherever possible. Key issues influencing densification, such as powder size segregation and gas pores in large powders, variation in powder surface oxygen content with powder store time, oxygen layer on γ-TiAl powder surface due to abnormally high fraction of the α2-Ti3Al phase as a result of rapid solidification of the powder, were discussed. The final section is dedicated to finite element modelling of powder densification, taking into account such factors as tooling design and stress shielding effect during HIPing. Future research directions are suggested in the summary section.

Key wordstitanium alloy    powder metallurgy    hydrogen pump impeller    hot isostatic pressing    near net shape forming
收稿日期: 2018-08-01      出版日期: 2018-09-18
ZTFLH:  TG146.23  
作者简介:

作者简介 徐 磊,男,1977年生,研究员, 博士

引用本文:

徐磊, 郭瑞鹏, 吴杰, 卢正冠, 杨锐. 钛合金粉末热等静压近净成形研究进展[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(11): 1537-1552.
Lei XU, Ruipeng GUO, Jie WU, Zhengguan LU, Rui YANG. Progress in Hot Isostatic Pressing Technology ofTitanium Alloy Powder. Acta Metall Sin, 2018, 54(11): 1537-1552.

链接本文:

http://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00360      或      http://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2018/V54/I11/1537

图1  2种制备钛合金预合金粉末典型工艺示意图
图2  中国科学院金属研究所粉末冶金近净成形工艺流程图
Sample Al Sn Fe Si C O N H Ti
ASTM B348 4.50~5.75 2.00~3.00 <0.25 <0.05 <0.05 <0.12 <0.035 <0.0125 Bal.
Electrode 5.01 2.49 0.06 0.006 0.006 0.076 0.005 0.001 Bal.
Powder 5.14 2.50 0.06 0.006 0.006 0.080 0.006 0.001 Bal.
表1  Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI预合金粉末的化学成分
图3  中国科学院金属研究所开发的钛合金粉末真空加热动态除气装置
Sample 20 ℃ -253 ℃
σb / MPa δ / % αKU2 / (kJm-2) KIC / (MPam1/2) σb / MPa δ / %
PM impeller 805 15.5 620 103 1440 18.0
Wrought[51] 826 14.6 600 115 1460 17.6
表2  Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI粉末合金的力学性能[51]
图4  叶轮包套/模具设计示意图[51]
图5  粉末振动过程中的粒度偏析示意图
图6  简单圆柱形包套热等静压前(左)后(右)尺寸的变化对比图
图7  中国科学院金属研究所研制的Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI粉末冶金氢泵叶轮
图8  940 ℃热等静压后Ti55粉末合金的显微组织[47]
State T / ℃ σb / MPa σs / MPa δ / % ψ / %
As-HIPed 20 974 921 16.0 28.4
600 586 465 15.8 22.9
960 ℃/1.5 h/AC+600 ℃/4 h/AC 20 994 902 14.8 39.0
600 655 510 20.8 34.5
990 ℃/1.5 h/AC+600 ℃/4 h/AC 20 1005 902 14.3 30.3
600 650 509 22.5 37.2
表3  不同热处理途径下Ti55粉末合金的20和600 ℃拉伸性能[47]
图9  铸造、粉末和锻造Ti55合金热处理后的20和600 ℃拉伸性能[47]
图10  AI、AII和AIII Ti55合金的拉伸性能
图11  Ti55粉末合金薄壁异形筒体[63]
图12  铸造和粉末γ-TiAl合金的显微组织和织构比较[75]
Alloy T / ℃ σs / MPa σb / MPa δ / %
Cast TiAl RT 519.14 581.31 1.16
650 396.51 546.66 4.00
PM TiAl RT 618.95 644.72 1.38
650 433.80 584.80 7.60
表4  典型铸造与粉末冶金γ-TiAl合金的拉伸性能[75]
图13  中国科学院金属研究所研制的γ-TiAl粉末冶金部件
图14  Ti-22Al-24Nb-0.5Mo坯料的Micro-CT分析[92]
图15  固溶温度对粉末Ti2AlNb合金室温拉伸性能的影响[92]
Ageing treatment T / ℃ σs / MPa σb / MPa δ / % L / h Microstructure
980 ℃/2 h/AC 20 992.12 1061.99 14.12 22.34 Equiaxed
650 755.10 1044.10 6.67
980 ℃/2 h/AC+800 ℃/24 h/AC 20 1066.29 1133.47 2.37 19.67 Lamellar
650 754.50 910.60 6.67
980 ℃/2 h/AC+830 ℃/24 h/AC 20 1005.74 1119.20 6.40 52.68 Lamellar
650 711.80 832.70 9.67
980 ℃/2 h/AC+850 ℃/24 h/AC 20 979.15 1100.34 7.40 56.97 Lamellar
650 694.80 828.40 12.67
980 ℃/2 h/AC+880 ℃/24 h/AC 20 919.48 1038.23 8.24 82.28 Lamellar
650 666.13 788.33 6.67
980 ℃/2 h/AC+900 ℃/24 h/AC 20 920.30 1038.60 12.39 88.08 Lamellar
650 675.77 770.80 6.89
1200 ℃/2 h/FC+760 ℃/14 h/AC 20 820.92 1003.63 3.72 200.00 Widmanst?tten
表5  时效处理对粉末冶金Ti2AlNb合金拉伸性能与高温持久寿命的影响[93]
图16  热等静压前后粉末坯料二维对称截面的模拟结果[51]
Position Actual size /mm Designed size /mm Relative error / %
I 14.88 15.00 0.80
II 42.28 42.00 0.67
III 5.07 5.00 1.40
IV 64.57 64.00 0.90
表6  粉末冶金叶轮关键部位尺寸和设计尺寸对比
图17  包套热等静压不均匀致密化示意图
图18  利用粉末冶金近净成形工艺制备的Ti2AlNb合金复杂环形件
图19  包套直径对粉末Ti2AlNb合金相对密度的影响[65]
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