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Acta Metall Sin  2014, Vol. 50 Issue (4): 400-408    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1037.2013.00538
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WU Si, LI Xiucheng, ZHANG Juan, SHANG Chengjia()
School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083
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Medium carbon steel is widely used in structural steels because of its favorable strength, but lack of toughness is a limitation in industrial applications. Among the different strengthening mechanism, grain refinement is the only method to improve both strength and toughness simultaneously. The toughness of steels can be affected by micro-alloying elements and microstructures, for medium carbon wheel steel, the fracture toughness is proportional to the square root of ferrite fraction and inversely proportional to the cube root of prior austenitic grain size. In this work, Nb micro-alloying is used to improve mechanical properties of medium carbon steel. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Nb-bearing medium carbon steel were studied in contrast with traditional Nb-free steel. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves of investigated steels were drawn by adopting dilatometry and metallographic method. The typical microstructures were observed by OM and SEM with EDS. The morphologies of precipitates were obtained by TEM. The effects of cooling rates on microstructure and hardness of the steel were studied with the above experimental methods. The results showed that the typical microstructure of medium carbon steel was ferrite and pearlite and the volume fraction of ferrite was increased from 4% to 24% by adding 0.06%Nb with refined microstructure. The yield strength of Nb-bearing steel was improved from 385 to 455 MPa and the Charpy V-notch energy at -20 ℃ was increased from 7 to 19 J in the condition of almost no reduction in tensile strength. It is because of Nb addition, which makes the transformation products of medium carbon steel be composed of ferrite and pearlite in a wider region of cooling rates (≤10 ℃/s) and a broader temperature range (530~690 ℃), with the hardness lower than 300 HV. With the calculation of Thermal-Calc software and solid solubility formula, Nb exists in medium carbon steel in the form of precipitate. The result of observation by TEM indicates the size of Nb precipitates was distributed in 20~50 nm. To sum up, the grain refining and precipitation strengthening are the main mechanism of Nb to promote the ferrite-pearlite transformation and improve toughness in medium carbon steel.

Key words:  medium carbon steel      Nb micro-alloying      microstructure refining      CCT curve      precipitate     
Received:  30 August 2013     
ZTFLH:  TG113  
Fund: Supported by National Basic Research Program of China (No.2010CB630801)

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Steel C Si Mn S P Cr Nb Fe
A 0.47 0.42 0.78 0.0082 0.015 0.22 - Bal.
B 0.47 0.42 0.81 0.0089 0.013 0.24 0.06 Bal.
Table 1  Chemical compositions of medium carbon steel






Steel Yield strength
Tensile strength
Reduction of area
Impact energy (-20 ℃)
A 385 748 22.8 55.3 7
B 455 733 22.3 53.8 19
表2  实验钢的力学性能












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