Please wait a minute...
Acta Metall Sin  2017, Vol. 53 Issue (11): 1532-1540    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00007
Orginal Article Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Influence of Multi-Thermal Cycle and Constraint Condition on Residual Stress in P92 Steel Weldment
Dean DENG1,2(), Sendong REN1, Suo LI1, Yanbin ZHANG1
1 College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
Download:  HTML  PDF(2765KB) 
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

P92 steel is a typical 9%~12%Cr ferrite heat-resistant steel with good high temperature creep resistance, relatively low linear expansion coefficient and excellent corrosion resistance, so it is one of important structural materials used in supercritical thermal power plants. Fusion welding technology has been widely used to assemble the parts in thermal power plant. When the supercritical unit is in service, its parts are constantly subjected to combination of tensile, bending, twisting and impact loads under high temperature and high pressure, and many problems such as creep, fatigue and brittle fracture often occur. It has been recognized that welding residual stress has a significant impact on creep, fatigue and brittle fracture, so it is necessary to study the residual stress of P92 steel welded joints. The evolution and formation mechanism of welding residual stress in P92 steel joints under multiple thermal cycles were investigated in this work. Based on SYSWELD software, a computational approach considering the couplings among thermal, microstructure and mechanics was developed to simulate welding residual stress in P92 steel joints. Using the developed computational tool, the evolution of residual stress in Satoh test specimens was studied, and welding residual stress distribution in double-pass welded joints was calculated. In the numerical models, the influences of volume change, yield strength variation and plasticity induced by phase transformation on welding residual stress were taken into account in details. Meanwhile, the hole-drilling method and XRD method were employed to measure the residual stress distribution in the double-pass welded joints. The simulated results match the experimental measurements well, and the comparison between measurements and predictions suggests that the computational approach developed by the current study can more accurately predict welding residual stress in multi-pass P92 steel joints. The simulated results show that the longitudinal residual stress distribution around the fusion zone has a clear tension-compression pattern. Compressive longitudinal residual stresses generated in the fusion zone and heat affected-zone (HAZ) in each pass, while tensile stresses produced near the HAZs. In addition, the numerical simulation also suggests that the transverse constraint has a large influence on the transverse residual stress, while it has an insignificant effect on the longitudinal residual stress.

Key words:  solid-state phase transformation      residual stress      numerical simulation      multi-thermal cycle      Satoh test     
Received:  06 January 2017     
ZTFLH:  TG404  
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51275544) and Graduate Scientific Research and Innovation Foundation of Chongqing (No.CYB16017)

Cite this article: 

Dean DENG, Sendong REN, Suo LI, Yanbin ZHANG. Influence of Multi-Thermal Cycle and Constraint Condition on Residual Stress in P92 Steel Weldment. Acta Metall Sin, 2017, 53(11): 1532-1540.

URL:     OR

Fig.1  Schematics of dimensions of welded joint, beads distribution, and the locations of XRD and hole-drilling (HD) measurements (unit: mm)
Fig.2  Schematic of couplings among thermal, metallurgical and mechanical analysis
Fig.3  Flowchart of finite element method (FEM) simulation
Fig.4  Schematic of the model of constrained heating-cooling test (Satoh test)
Case PT-1 PT-2
A 1400 600
B 1400 1400
C 600 1400
Table 1  Simulation cases of Satoh test (℃)
Fig.5  3D finite element model
Fig.6  Schematics of model in free condition (a) and constraint condition (b)
Fig.7  Evolution of axial stress with time in Case A (a), Case B (b) and Case C (c) in the Satoh test
Fig.8  Schematic of feature point positions (a), and longitudinal stress formation of feature points P1 (b), P2 (c) and P3 (d) in the simulation results and their comparison with measurements
Fig.9  Distributions of welding residual stress at longitudinal (a) and transverse (b) directions
Fig.10  Comparison of simulation results and measurements of longitudinal (a) and transverse (b) residual stress
Fig.11  Distributions of welding residual stress at longitudinal (a) and transverse (b) directions with transverse constraint
Fig.12  Comparisons of simulation results of longitudinal (a) and transverse (b) residual stress in different constraint conditions
[1] Rojas D, Garcia J, Prat O, et al.9%Cr heat resistant steels: Alloy design, microstructure evolution and creep response at 650 ℃[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2011, A528: 5164
[2] Spigarelli S, Quadrini E.Analysis of the creep behaviour of modified P91 (9Cr-1Mo-NbV) welds[J]. Mater. Des., 2002, 23: 547
[3] Hald J.Microstructure and long-term creep properties of 9-12%Cr steels[J]. Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 2008, 85: 30
[4] Pandey C, Giri A, Mahapatra M M.Evolution of phases in P91 steel in various heat treatment conditions and their effect on microstructure stability and mechanical properties[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2016, A664 : 58
[5] Vyrostková A, Homolová V, Pecha J, et al.Phase evolution in P92 and E911 weld metals during ageing[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2008, A480(1-2): 289
[6] Buchheim G M, Osage D A, Brown R G, et al.Failure investigation of a low chrome long-seam weld in a high-temperature refinery piping system[J]. J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 1995, 117: 227
[7] Abson D J, Rothwell J S.Review of type IV cracking of weldments in 9-12%Cr creep strength enhanced ferritic steels[J]. Int. Mater. Rev., 2013, 58: 437
[8] Francis J A, Mazur W, Bhadeshia H K D H. Review type IV cracking in ferritic power plant steels[J]. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22: 1387
[9] Turski M, Sherry A H, Bouchard P J, et al.Residual stress driven creep cracking in type 316 stainless steel[J]. J. Neutron. Res., 2004, 12: 45
[10] Deng D A, Zhang Y B, Li S, et al.Influence of solid-state phase transformation on residual stress in P92 steel welded joint[J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2016, 52: 394(邓德安, 张彦斌, 李索等. 固态相变对P92钢焊接接头残余应力的影响[J]. 金属学报, 2016, 52: 394)
[11] Francis J A, Bhadeshia H K D H, Withers P J. Welding residual stresses in ferritic power plant steels[J]. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23: 1009
[12] Ueda Y, Murakawa H, Ma N.Welding Deformation and Residual Stress Prevention[M]. Waltham: Elsevier, 2012: 1
[13] Dai H, Francis J A, Stone H J, et al.Characterizing phase transformations and their effects on ferritic weld residual stresses with X-rays and neutrons[J]. Metall. Mater. Trans., 2008, 39A: 3070
[14] Dixneit J, Kromm A, Hannemann A, et al.In-situ load analysis in multi-run welding using LTT filler materials[J]. Weld. Word, 2016, 60: 1159
[15] Dai H, Francis J A, Withers P J.Prediction of residual stress distributions for single weld beads deposited on to SA508 steel including phase transformation effects[J]. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26: 940
[16] Hamelin C J, Muránsky O, Smith M C, et al.Validation of a numerical model used to predict phase distribution and residual stress in ferritic steel weldments[J]. Acta Mater., 2014, 75: 1
[17] Deng D A, Murakawa H.Prediction of welding residual stress in multi-pass butt-welded modified 9Cr-1Mo steel pipe considering phase transformation effects[J]. Comput. Mater. Sci., 2006, 37: 209
[18] Deng D A, Murakawa H.Influence of transformation induced plasticity on simulated results of welding residual stress in low temperature transformation steel[J]. Comput. Mater. Sci., 2013, 78: 55
[19] Yaghi A H, Hyde T H, Becker A A, et al.Residual stress simulation in welded sections of P91 pipes[J]. J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2005, 167: 480
[20] Yaghi A H, Hyde T H, Becker A A, et al. Finite element simulation of residual stresses induced by the dissimilar welding of a P92 steel pipe with weld metal IN625 [J]. Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 2013, 111-112: 173
[21] Yaghi A H, Hyde T H, Becker A A, et al.Finite element simulation of welding residual stresses in martensitic steel pipes[J]. Mater. Res. Innov., 2013, 17: 306
[22] Kumar S, Awasthi R, Viswanadham C S, et al.Thermo-metallurgical and thermo-mechanical computations for laser welded joint in 9Cr-1Mo(V, Nb) ferritic/martensitic steel[J]. Mater. Des., 2014, 59: 211
[23] Heinze C, Pittner A, Rethmeier M, et al.Dependency of martensite start temperature on prior austenite grain size and its influence on welding-induced residual stresses[J]. Comput. Mater. Sci., 2013, 69: 251
[24] Pearce S V, Linton V M. Neutron diffraction measurement of residual stress in high strength, highly restrained, thick section steel welds [J]. Physica, 2006, 385-386B: 590
[25] Schenk T, Richardson I M, Kraska M, et al.A study on the influence of clamping on welding distortion[J]. Comput. Mater. Sci., 2009, 45: 999
[26] Deng D A, Murakawa H.FEM prediction of buckling distortion induced by welding in thin plate panel structures[J]. Comput. Mater. Sci., 2008, 43: 591
[27] Satoh K.Transient thermal stresses of weld heat-affected zone by both-ends-fixed bar analogy[J]. Trans. Jpn. Weld. Soc., 1972, 3: 125
[28] Ueda Y, Murakawa H, Ma N.Welding Deformation and Residual Stress Prevention[M]. New York: Elsevier, 2012: 55
[1] LIU Jizhao, HUANG Hefei, ZHU Zhenbo, LIU Awen, LI Yan. Numerical Simulation of Nanohardness in Hastelloy N Alloy After Xenon Ion Irradiation[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(5): 753-759.
[2] WANG Bo,SHEN Shiyi,RUAN Yanwei,CHENG Shuyong,PENG Wangjun,ZHANG Jieyu. Simulation of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Metallurgical Process[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(4): 619-632.
[3] BI Zhongnan,QIN Hailong,DONG Zhiguo,WANG Xiangping,WANG Ming,LIU Yongquan,DU Jinhui,ZHANG Ji. Residual Stress Evolution and Its Mechanism During the Manufacture of Superalloy Disk Forgings[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1160-1174.
[4] XU Qingyan,YANG Cong,YAN Xuewei,LIU Baicheng. Development of Numerical Simulation in Nickel-Based Superalloy Turbine Blade Directional Solidification[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1175-1184.
[5] Peiyuan DAI,Xing HU,Shijie LU,Yifeng WANG,Dean DENG. Influence of Size Factor on Calculation Accuracy of Welding Residual Stress of Stainless Steel Pipe by 2D Axisymmetric Model[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(8): 1058-1066.
[6] Hailong QIN,Ruiyao ZHANG,Zhongnan BI,Lee Tung Lik,Hongbiao DONG,Jinhui DU,Ji ZHANG. Study on the Evolution of Residual Stress During Ageing Treatment in a GH4169 Alloy Disk[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(8): 997-1007.
[7] Timing ZHANG, Weimin ZHAO, Wei JIANG, Yonglin WANG, Min YANG. Numerical Simulation of Hydrogen Diffusion in X80 Welded Joint Under the Combined Effect of Residual Stress and Microstructure Inhomogeneity[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(2): 258-266.
[8] LU Shijie, WANG Hu, DAI Peiyuan, DENG Dean. Effect of Creep on Prediction Accuracy and Calculating Efficiency of Residual Stress in Post Weld Heat Treatment[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(12): 1581-1592.
[9] ZHANG Qingdong, LIN Xiao, LIU Jiyang, HU Shushan. Modelling of Q&P Steel Heat Treatment Process Based on Finite Element Method[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(12): 1569-1580.
[10] SHI Zhangzhi, ZHANG Min, HUANG Xuefei, LIU Xuefeng, ZHANG Wenzheng. Research Progress in Age-Hardenable Mg-Sn Based Alloys[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(10): 1231-1242.
[11] Jun LI, Mingxu XIA, Qiaodan HU, Jianguo LI. Solutions in Improving Homogeneities of Heavy Ingots[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(5): 773-788.
[12] Feng LIU, Xu ZHANG, Yubing ZHANG. Unified Analysis of Non-Equilibrium Solidification and Solid-State Phase Transformations[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(5): 701-716.
[13] Zheng LIU, Zhiping CHEN, Tao CHEN. Effects of Crucible Size and Electromagnetic Frequency on Flow During Fabrication of Semisolid A356 Al Alloy Slurry[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(3): 435-442.
[14] Shu WEN, Anping DONG, Yanling LU, Guoliang ZHU, Da SHU, Baode SUN. Finite Element Simulation of the Temperature Field and Residual Stress in GH536 Superalloy Treated by Selective Laser Melting[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(3): 393-403.
[15] Xinhua LIU, Huadong FU, Xingqun HE, Xintong FU, Yanqing JIANG, Jianxin XIE. Numerical Simulation Analysis of Continuous Casting Cladding Forming for Cu-Al Composites[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(3): 470-484.
No Suggested Reading articles found!