Please wait a minute...
Acta Metall Sin  2017, Vol. 53 Issue (10): 1347-1356    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00248
Orginal Article Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in Dynamic Conditions
Linyuan HAN, Xuan LI, Chenglin CHU(), Jing BAI, Feng XUE
School of Material Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
Download:  HTML  PDF(4519KB) 
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  

Magnesium alloy is now a promising bio-absorbable material. The previous researches on the corrosion and degradation behavior of biomedical magnesium alloy are mainly carried out in static conditions in vitro. However, considering the real physiological flow field of different flow states in vivo, the static degradation experiments can not effectively simulate the real situation. It is important to study the effect of flow field on the corrosion behavior of magnesium alloy and establish the relationship between flow rate and corrosion rate for the research and development of biomedical magnesium alloy. The corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in the flow field was studied using a self-designed dynamic test bench in vitro by electrochemical measurement, tensile method, pH value test of simulated body fluid (SBF) and SEM observation in this work. The relationship between the corrosion rate of magnesium alloy and the flow rate of the flow field was investigated from the perspective of corrosion electrochemistry. The influence of flow state and flow-induced shear stress (FISS) on corrosion behaviors at different positions of magnesium alloy was also studied by ANSYS finite element analysis. The results show that the flow field will accelerate the corrosion of AZ31 magnesium alloy and the corrosion rate increases with the increase of the flow rate. There is a relationship between the corrosion current density icorr of magnesium alloy and the average flow rate ν during the early corrosion stage, namely icorr-1=ic-1+Aν-1/2, where ic is the corrosion current density ignoring the influence of diffusion, and A is a constant. With the corrosion time extended, due to the influence of the corrosion products, the experimental results gradually deviate from the calculated linear relationship of icorr-1-1/2. Also, there are significant differences in the fluid flow state and FISS distributions at different positions of the sample. The mass transfer coefficient at the edge of the sample under different flow rates is 4~5 times bigger than that at the middle position. The localized corrosion morphology corresponds well to the FISS distribution and the difference of flow state.

Key words:  AZ31 magnesium alloy      corrosion behavior      flow field      electrochemistry      mass transfer     
Received:  22 June 2017     
ZTFLH:  TG146.2  
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.31570961 and 51771054) and National Key Research and Deve-lopment Program of China (No.2016YFC1102402)

Cite this article: 

Linyuan HAN, Xuan LI, Chenglin CHU, Jing BAI, Feng XUE. Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in Dynamic Conditions. Acta Metall Sin, 2017, 53(10): 1347-1356.

URL: 

https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00248     OR     https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/Y2017/V53/I10/1347

Fig.1  Schematic of the dynamic test bench in vitro (v—flow rate)
Fig.2  Nyquist plots (a, b) and Bode plots of impedance modulus |Z| (c, d) and phase angle (e, f) vs frequency of AZ31 magnesium alloy in static condition (a, c, e) and dynamic condition under v=0.265 cm/s (b, d, f) (Arrows in Figs.2a, c and e indicate the direction in which the curre changes over time)
Fig.3  Equivalent circuit for fitting the EIS data measured at static and dynamic conditions in simulated body fluid (SBF) (Rs—electrolyte resistance; CPE1—capacitance of precipitated corrosion products layer; R1—resistance of precipitated corrosion products layer; CPEdl—double layer capacitance; Rdl—charge transfer resistance)
Fig.4  EIS fitted results of polarization resistance Rp (a), Rdl (b) and R1 (c) as the functions of time for AZ31 magnesium alloys in static condition and dynamic condition under different flow rates
Fig.5  Tensile strengths (a) and pH values (b) of AZ31 magnesium alloys immersed in static condition and dynamic condition under different flow rates
Fig.6  Experimental and fitted corrosion current density icorr results for AZ31 magnesium alloys as the functions of flow rate under different times
Fig.7  SEM (a) and EDS analysis (b) of the corrosion product of AZ31 magnesium alloy at v=0.265 cm/s for 72 h
Fig.8  Simulated distributions of the flow rate trace (a) and flow-induced shear stress (b) at ν=0.265 cm/s
ν / (cms-1) τe / Pa τc / Pa Ke / (ms-1) Kc / (ms-1) R
0.066 0.098 0.006 11.37 2.81 4.04
0.133 0.247 0.016 18.06 4.60 3.93
0.199 0.569 0.029 27.41 6.19 4.43
0.265 0.989 0.039 36.13 7.18 5.04
Table 1  Flow-induced shear stresses and mass transfer coefficients of different positions under different flow rates
Fig.9  SEM images of edge (a, c) and middle (b, d) regions of AZ31 magnesium alloy in static condition (a, b) and dynamic condition under ν=0.265 cm/s (c, d) immersed in SBF for 72 h
[1] Zheng Y F, Wu Y H.Revolutionizing metallic biomaterials[J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2017, 53: 257(郑玉峰, 吴远浩. 处在变革中的医用金属材料[J]. 金属学报, 2017, 53: 257)
[2] Zheng Y F, Gu X N, Witte F.Biodegradable metals[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2014, R77: 1
[3] Yun Y H, Dong Z Y, Lee N, et al.Revolutionizing biodegradable metals[J]. Materialstoday, 2009, 12: 22
[4] Witte F, Ulrich H, Rudert M, et al.Biodegradable magnesium scaffolds: Part 1: Appropriate inflammatory response[J]. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 2007, 81A: 748
[5] Li H W, Xu K, Yang K, et al.The degradation performance of AZ31 bioabsorbable magnesium alloy stent implanted in the abdominal aorta of rabbits[J]. J. Intervent. Radiol., 2010, 19: 315(李海伟, 徐克, 杨柯等. 可降解AZ31镁合金支架在兔腹主动脉的降解性能研究[J]. 介入放射学杂志, 2010, 19: 315)
[6] Wang S F, Wang C Y, Yao Y S, et al.Repair of mandibular defects with AZ31 Magnesium alloy in rabbits[J]. J. Oral Sci. Res., 2013, 29: 33(王树峰, 王程越, 姚玉胜等. AZ31镁合金修复兔下颌骨缺损的实验研究[J]. 口腔医学研究, 2013, 29: 33)
[7] Witte F, Kaese V, Haferkamp H, et al.In vivo corrosion of four magnesium alloys and the associated bone response[J]. Biomaterials, 2005, 26: 3557
[8] Deng X G.The corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated human body environment [D]. Dalian: Dalian University of Technology, 2009(邓希光. AZ31镁合金在模拟人体环境中的腐蚀行为研究 [D]. 大连: 大连理工大学, 2009)
[9] Mueller W D, Nascimento M L, de Mele M F L. Critical discussion of the results from different corrosion studies of Mg and Mg alloys for biomaterial applications[J]. Acta Biomater., 2010, 6: 1749
[10] Witte F, Fischer J, Nellesen J, et al.In vitro and in vivo corrosion measurements of magnesium alloys[J]. Biomaterials, 2006, 27: 1013
[11] Bontrager J, Mahapatro A, Gomes A S.Microscopic bio-corrosion evaluations of magnesium surfaces in static and dynamic conditions[J]. J. Microsc., 2014, 255: 104
[12] Lévesque J, Hermawan H, Dubé D, et al.Design of a pseudo-physiological test bench specific to the development of biodegradable metallic biomaterials[J]. Acta Biomater., 2008, 4: 284
[13] Mai E D, Liu H N.Investigation on magnesium degradation under flow versus static conditions using a novel impedance-driven flow apparatus[J]. Prog. Nat. Sci., 2014, 24: 554
[14] Wang J, Giridharan V, Shanov V, et al.Flow-induced corrosion behavior of absorbable magnesium-based stents[J]. Acta Biomater., 2014, 10: 5213
[15] Md Saad A P, Abdul Rahim R A, Harun M N, et al. The influence of flow rates on the dynamic degradation behaviour of porous magnesium under a simulated environment of human cancellous bone[J]. Mater. Des., 2017, 122: 268
[16] Koo Y, Tiasha T, Shanov V N, et al.Expandable Mg-based helical stent assessment using static, dynamic, and porcine ex vivo models[J]. Sci. Rep., 2017, 7: 1173
[17] Kirkland N T, Birbilis N, Staiger M P.Assessing the corrosion of biodegradable magnesium implants: A critical review of current methodologies and their limitations[J]. Acta Biomater., 2012, 8: 925
[18] Lao Y H, Zhang W W, Xu X F, et al.Dynamic degradation behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in artificial plasma[J]. Rare Met. Mater. Eng., 2014, 43: 1242(劳永华, 张文威, 徐笑凡等. AZ31镁合金在人工血浆中的动态降解行为[J]. 稀有金属材料与工程, 2014, 43: 1242)
[19] Cao C N, Zhang J Q.An Introduction to Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2002: 46(曹楚南, 张鉴清. 电化学阻抗谱导论 [M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 2002: 46)
[20] Wang J, Smith C E, Sankar J, et al.Absorbable magnesium-based stent: Physiological factors to consider for in vitro degradation assessments[J]. Regen. Biomater., 2015, 2: 59
[21] Cao C N.Principles of Electrochemistry of Corrosion [M]. 3rd Ed., Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 2008: 65(曹楚南. 腐蚀电化学原理 [M]. 第3版. 北京: 化学工业出版社, 2008: 65)
[22] Bagotsky V S.Fundamentals of Electrochemistry[M]. 2nd Ed., New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005: 51
[23] Zheng Y G, Yao Z M, Ke W.Review on the effects of hydrodynamic factors on erosion-corrosion[J]. Corros. Sci. Prot. Technol., 2000, 12: 36(郑玉贵, 姚治铭, 柯伟. 流体力学因素对冲刷腐蚀的影响机制[J]. 腐蚀科学与防护技术, 2000, 12: 36)
[24] Revie R W.Uhlig's Corrosion Handbook[M]. 3rd Ed., New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011: 203
[25] Zhang G A, Zeng Y, Guo X P, et al.Electrochemical corrosion behavior of carbon steel under dynamic high pressure H2S/CO2 environment[J]. Corros. Sci., 2012, 65: 37
[26] Wang J, Jang Y, Wan G J, et al.Flow-induced corrosion of absorbable magnesium alloy: In-situ and real-time electrochemical study[J]. Corros. Sci., 2016, 104: 277
[27] Hao X C, Zhou W Q, Zheng Z G.Study on electrochemical corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloys in NaCl solution[J]. J. Shenyang Norm. Univ.(Nat. Sci.), 2004, 22: 117(郝献超, 周婉秋, 郑志国. AZ31镁合金在NaCl溶液中的电化学腐蚀行为研究[J]. 沈阳师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2004, 22: 117)
[28] Tan Q B, Yang H G, Zhu X M.Electrochemical corrosion behaviors of AZ31 Magnesium alloys[J]. J. Dalian Jiaotong Univ., 2008, 29(1): 89(谭庆彪, 杨海刚, 朱雪梅. AZ31镁合金的电化学腐蚀行为[J]. 大连交通大学学报, 2008, 29(1): 89)
[29] Paolinelli L D, Carr G E.Mechanical integrity of corrosion product films on rotating cylinder specimens[J]. Corros. Sci., 2015, 92: 155
[30] Liu J J.Numerical simulation of flow-induced corrosion of metals in high flow multiphase seawater and test verification [D]. Beijing: Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 2006(刘景军. 高速多相海水中材料流动腐蚀的数值模拟与实验验证 [D]. 北京: 北京化工大学, 2006)
[31] Heitz E.Mechanistically based prevention strategies of flow-induced corrosion[J]. Electrochim. Acta, 1996, 41: 503
[32] Heitz E, Kreysa G, Loss C.Investigation of hydrodynamic test systems for the selection of high flow rate resistant materials[J]. J. Appl. Electrochem., 1979, 9: 243
[1] ZHAO Yanchun, MAO Xuejing, LI Wensheng, SUN Hao, LI Chunling, ZHAO Pengbiao, KOU Shengzhong, Liaw Peter K.. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Fe-15Mn-5Si-14Cr-0.2C Amorphous Steel[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(5): 715-722.
[2] CHEN Fang,LI Yadong,YANG Jian,TANG Xiao,LI Yan. Corrosion Behavior of X80 Steel Welded Joint in Simulated Natural Gas Condensate Solutions[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(2): 137-147.
[3] Xin LI,Yuecheng DONG,Zhenhua DAN,Hui CHANG,Zhigang FANG,Yanhua GUO. Corrosion Behavior of Ultrafine Grained Pure Ti Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(8): 967-975.
[4] Chengming ZHENG, Qingchao TIAN. Effect of Alloy Elements on Oxidation Behavior of Piercing Plug Steel[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(4): 427-435.
[5] BAI Yang, WANG Zhenhua, LI Xiangbo, LI Yan. Corrosion Behavior of Al(Y)-30%Al2O3 Coating Fabricated by Low Pressure Cold Spray Technology[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(10): 1338-1348.
[6] Shaopeng QU, Baizhang CHENG, Lihua DONG, Yansheng YIN, Lijing YANG. Corrosion Behavior of 2205 Steel in Simulated Hydrothermal Area[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(8): 1094-1104.
[7] Chenglin LIU, Haijun SU, Jun ZHANG, Taiwen HUANG, Lin LIU, Hengzhi FU. Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Microstructure ofNi-Based Single Crystal Superalloys[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(10): 1428-1434.
[8] Suqiang ZHANG,Hongyun ZHAO,Fengyuan SHU,Guodong WANG,Wenxiong HE. Effect of Welding Thermal Cycle on Corrosion Behavior of Q315NS Steel in H2SO4 Solution[J]. 金属学报, 2017, 53(7): 808-816.
[9] Hongxia WAN,Dongdong SONG,Zhiyong LIU,Cuiwei DU,Xiaogang LI. Effect of Alternating Current on Corrosion Behavior of X80 Pipeline Steel in Near-Neutral Environment[J]. 金属学报, 2017, 53(5): 575-582.
[10] Yaqiong YAN,Jinru LUO,Jishan ZHANG,Linzhong ZHUANG. Study on the Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties Control of a Strong Textured AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet During Cryorolling[J]. 金属学报, 2017, 53(1): 107-113.
[11] Yongchang QING,Zhiwei YANG,Jun XIAN,Jin XU,Maocheng YAN,Tangqing WU,Changkun YU,Libao YU,Cheng SUN. CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF Q235 STEEL UNDER THE INTERACTION OF ALTERNATING CURRENT AND MICROORGANISMS[J]. 金属学报, 2016, 52(9): 1142-1152.
[12] Bin XU,Qingxian HU,Shujun CHEN,Fan JIANG,Xiaoli WANG. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF KEYHOLE AND MOLTEN POOL AT K-PAW QUASI STEADY PROCESS[J]. 金属学报, 2016, 52(7): 804-810.
[13] Tianguo WEI,Jiankang LIN,Chongsheng LONG,Hongsheng CHEN. EFFECT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN STEAM ON THE CORROSION BEHAVIORS OF ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS[J]. 金属学报, 2016, 52(2): 209-216.
[14] CAO Fengting, WEI Jie, DONG Junhua, KE Wei. CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF 20SiMn STEEL REBAR IN CARBONATE/BICARBONATE SOLUTIONS WITH THE SAME pH VALUE[J]. 金属学报, 2014, 50(6): 674-684.
[15] ZHOU Xiaowei,SHEN Yifu. CORROSION BEHAVIOR AND EIS STUDY OF NANOCRYSTALLINE Ni-CeO2 COATINGS IN AN ACID NaCl SOLUTION[J]. 金属学报, 2013, 49(9): 1121-1130.
No Suggested Reading articles found!