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金属学报  2020, Vol. 56 Issue (3): 257-277    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00391
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脉冲电流调控金属熔体中的非金属夹杂物
张新房(),闫龙格
北京科技大学冶金与生态工程学院钢铁冶金新技术国家重点实验室 北京 100083
Regulating the Non-Metallic Inclusions by Pulsed Electric Current in Molten Metal
ZHANG Xinfang(),YAN Longge
State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
全文: PDF(15896 KB)   HTML
摘要: 

通常非金属夹杂物会降低钢铁材料的性能,例如降低横向力学性能、萌生裂纹、减低疲劳寿命和诱发腐蚀。减少夹杂物的数量和改变夹杂物的形态可以显著提升钢铁材料的性能。所以,钢中夹杂物的去除以及形态控制一直以来都是研究的热点。虽然通过底吹Ar气、电磁搅拌和过滤方法可以在一定程度上去除夹杂物,但是上述方法难以有效地去除尺寸小于20 μm的夹杂物,并且不能有效地控制夹杂物的形态。最近,电流成为一种夹杂物去除与形态控制的新方法。本文简要综述了夹杂物的危害及其控制手段,并且详细回顾了电流对金属熔体中夹杂物的去除、取向和形态演变的影响,并介绍了电流控制夹杂物的3种机理:电泳、电自由能驱动、电磁斥力。电泳理论认为熔体中的夹杂物带有电荷,夹杂物在电场力的作用下平行于电流方向迁移。电自由能驱动理论和电磁斥力理论认为夹杂物垂直于电流方向迁移。电流波形显著影响夹杂物的去除效果,与直流电、交流电相比,脉冲电流具有较强的夹杂物去除能力,尤其是脉冲电流能够有效分离钢液中尺寸为5 μm以上的夹杂物。此外,脉冲电流不仅可以控制夹杂物取向与形态,还可以对气泡的形态产生影响;脉冲电流作用下夹杂物趋于细化、球化并平行于电流排列。最后,对电流控制夹杂物的研究现状进行了总结,并分析了未来的研究趋势。同时,对脉冲电流在抑制浸入式水口堵塞中的应用进行分析与展望。由于脉冲电流能耗低、夹杂物去除效果好以及工艺装备简易的优点,有望成为未来去除夹杂物、抑制水口堵塞的新技术。

关键词 脉冲电流夹杂物去除夹杂物形态浸入式水口堵塞    
Abstract

Non-metallic inclusions generally reduce the properties of steels, such as reducing transverse mechanical properties, initiating cracks, reducing fatigue life and inducing corrosion. Reducing the number and changing the morphology of inclusions can significantly improve the performance of steels. Therefore, inclusion removal and its morphology control in steel have always been the focus issue. Although the bottom-blown argon, electromagnetic stirring and filtration can remove inclusions to a certain extent, these methods are difficult to effectively remove inclusions smaller than 20 μm in size and cannot effectively control the morphology of the inclusions. Recently, electric current has become a new method for inclusion removal and morphology control. This article briefly reviews the hazards of inclusions and their control methods, and reviews the effects of current on the removal, orientation and morphological evolution of inclusions in metal melts in detail, and introduces three mechanisms of current-controlled inclusion separation: electrophoresis, electrical free energy driving and electromagnetic repulsion. Electrophoresis theory believes that inclusions in the melt are charged, and they migrate parallel to the direction of the current under the action of the electric field force. While the electrical free energy driving and electromagnetic repulsion hold that inclusions migrate perpendicular to the direction of the current. The current waveforms significantly affect the removal efficiency of inclusions. Compared with direct current and alternating current, the pulsed electric current has a stronger ability to remove inclusions, especially pulsed electric current can effectively separate inclusions with a size larger than 5 μm in the molten steel. In addition, the pulse current can not only control the orientation and morphology of the inclusions, but also affect the morphology of the bubbles; the inclusions tend to be refined, spheroidized and arranged parallel to the current under the action of the pulse current. Finally, the research status of current-controlled inclusion separation is summarized, and future research trends are analyzed. At the same time, the application and prospect of pulsed current in anti-clogging of submerged entry nozzle was also analyzed. Due to the low energy consumption, excellent inclusion removal efficiency and easy process equipment, pulsed current separation technique is expected to become a new technology for removing inclusions and suppressing nozzle blockage in the future.

Key wordselectropulsing    inclusion removal    inclusion morphology    submerged entry nozzle    clogging
收稿日期: 2019-11-15     
ZTFLH:  TF704.7  
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(U1860206);国家自然科学基金项目(51874023);国家自然科学基金项目(51601011);中央高校基本科研业务费项目(FRF-TP-18-003B1);海外高层次人才引进计划项目
通讯作者: 张新房     E-mail: xfzhang@ustb.edu.cn
Corresponding author: Xinfang ZHANG     E-mail: xfzhang@ustb.edu.cn
作者简介: 张新房,男,1981年生,教授

引用本文:

张新房, 闫龙格. 脉冲电流调控金属熔体中的非金属夹杂物[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(3): 257-277.
ZHANG Xinfang, YAN Longge. Regulating the Non-Metallic Inclusions by Pulsed Electric Current in Molten Metal. Acta Metall Sin, 2020, 56(3): 257-277.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00391      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2020/V56/I3/257

图1  电流波形示意图
图2  电极插入方式
图 3  电磁斥力分离夹杂物示意图
图4  带不同电荷的夹杂物向电极方向迁移
图5  金属熔体中没有夹杂物和有夹杂物时的电流分布
图6  夹杂物垂直电流迁移
图7  电熔剂精炼工艺原理图
图8  电流通过金属熔体时非金属夹杂物的运动轨迹
图9  圆管和矩形管
图10  直流电作用下圆管和矩形管中夹杂物去除效率[56]
图11  电流驱动夹杂物3种效应[49]
图 12  未处理与电脉冲处理后钢液中夹杂物数量分布[49]
图13  电脉冲处理与未处理钢液中夹杂物Al2O3和MnS数量分布[67]
图14  脉冲电流处理前后试样中部MgO夹杂物尺寸分布
图15  电流处理后MnS结构示意图[74]
图16  不同结构的MnS颗粒引起的裂纹示意图[74]
图17  悬浮于金属液中的椭圆盘形非金属颗粒[77]
图18  椭圆盘形颗粒旋转过程中性质变化
图19  电流引起的夹杂物之间的相互作用
图20  夹杂物相互作用示意图[79]
图21  脉冲电流处理后钢中夹杂物的形态和分布[79]
图22  脉冲电流处理+轧制后MnS形态演化示意图
图23  钢锭中夹杂物数量分布[49,87]
图 24  气泡表面的夹杂物受力分析
图25  相对密度和夹杂物层厚度随施加脉冲电流的变化[108]
CurrentParameter (frequency, duration and current density)d / μmξ / %Ref.
AC60 Hz, -, 2.5×104 A?m-2>20>35[34]
>60>95
PDC5000 Hz, -, 1.0×103 A?m-2>5-[45]
PDC1 Hz, 60 μs, 1.6×106 A?m-2>10>90[49]
1 Hz, 60 μs, 1.6×106 A?m-2>5>80
DC-, -, 105 A?m-2--[51]
DC-, -, 1.0×106 A?m-2->50[52]
DC-, -, 3.2×106 A?m-2->84[53]
DC-, -, 2.8×106 A?m-2>20>80[55]
>10>30
DC-, -, 3.0×106 A?m-2>20>90[57]
>10>50
AC-, -, 3.9×106 A?m-2->90[58]
DC-, -, 4.0×107 A?m-2>10>100[58]
>5>95
DC-, -, 3.0×106 A?m-2>50>100[59]
>10>30
PDC-, 15 ms, 1.3×108 A?m-2>15-[62]
PDC1 Hz, 20 μs, 1.2×105 A?m-2>2-[66]
PDC50 Hz, 60 μs, 4.1×105 A?m-2>5>67[69]
PDC500 Hz, -, 6.6×104 A?m-2>5>95[72]
PDC20 kHz, -, 1.0×103 A?m-2--[108]
PDC20 kHz, -, 1.0×103 A?m-2--[109]
表1  电流去除夹杂物参数总结[34,45,49,51,52,53,55,57,58,59,62,66,69,72,108,109]
图26  不同类型电流去除夹杂物效率[34,49,54,56,57,58,68,69]
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