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Acta Metall Sin  2020, Vol. 56 Issue (4): 523-538    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2019.00370
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Review on Research Progress of Steel and Iron Wear-Resistant Materials
WEI Shizhong1(),XU Liujie2()
1.National Joint Engineering Research Center for Abrasion Control and Molding of Metal Materials, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, China
2.Engineering Research Center of Tribology & Materials Protection, Ministry of Education,Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, China
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In this paper, the development history of iron and steel wear-resistant materials is introduced, and the composition, microstructure, wear property, antiwear mechanism and modification technology of three typical wear resistant materials, namely high manganese steel, high chromium cast iron and high vanadium high-speed steel, are mainly reviewed. The wear-resistant steel represented by high manganese steel relies on the matrix with high strength and toughness to resist wear, while the wear-resistant alloy represented by high chromium cast iron and high vanadium high-speed steel mainly relies on the wear-resistant phase with high hardness to resist wear. High vanadium high speed steel has better wear resistance than high chromium cast iron, which is related to VC characteristics with high hardness and good shape. It is proposed that high performance wear-resistant materials should have three elements: high strength and toughness matrix, multi-scale synergistic action of high quality wear-resistant phase with high hardness and good morphology, as well as good bonding interface between wear-resistant phase and matrix.

Key words:  steel and iron wear-resistant material      research progress      prospect     
Received:  04 November 2019     
ZTFLH:  TG141  
Fund: National Natural Science Foundation of China(51171060);Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University(IRT1234)
Corresponding Authors:  Shizhong WEI,Liujie XU     E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

WEI Shizhong, XU Liujie. Review on Research Progress of Steel and Iron Wear-Resistant Materials. Acta Metall Sin, 2020, 56(4): 523-538.

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Fig.1  Typical microstructures of high manganese steel of as-cast (a) and after solid solution treatment (b)[11]
Fig.2  The orientation image map of 18Mn steel after compressed 70% at 900 ℃, holding time for 3 min and forced-air hardening (ND—normal direction)[12]Color online(a) orientation image map of Kikuchi lines contrast(b) orientation image map of phase distribution (grey: austanite, red: ε-M; blue: α'-M)(c) orientation of austenite
Fig.3  Bright (a, d) and dark (b, e) field TEM images and electron diffraction patterns (c, f) of high manganese steel under the compression deformations of 30% (a~c) and 50% (d~f)[19]
Fig.4  Typical microstructure of high chromium cast iron[51](a) OM image of the microstructure (b) the morphology of the extractive primary carbides
Type ofTwo-body wear propertyThree-body wear property
SiC (2600 HV)Austenite is beneficial to improve wear resistanceAustenite is beneficial to improve wear resistance
Martensite is not conducive to improving wear resistanceMartensite is not conducive to improving wear resistance
The increase of carbide can increase the wear resistance slightly

The increase of carbide decreases the wear resistance

Garnet (1360 HV)

Austenite is not conducive to improving wear resistanceAustenite is not conducive to improving wear resistance
Martensite is beneficial to improve wear resistanceMartensite is beneficial to improve wear resistance
The increase of carbide can increase the wear resistance significantlyThe increase of carbide can increase the wear resistance significantly
Table 1  Test result under different abrasive wear conditions[52]
Type of abrasive

Size of carbide<abrasive size

Size of carbide>abrasive size

Hard abrasive

Significant decrease in wear resistance, increasing carbide size can improve wear resistanceWear resistance decreases greatly under higher stress conditions, proper control of carbide size can improve wear resistance

Soft abrasive

Wear resistance decreases under high stress, increasing carbide size can improve wear resistance

Increasing the amount of carbide can improve the wear resistance

Table 2  Effect of size effect of carbide on wear resistance of high Cr cast iron[61]
Table 3  chemical compositions of high vanadium high speed steel[103,104,105,106,107,108]
Fig.5  Liquids surface diagram of Fe-5Cr-V-C, Fe-15Cr-V-C and Fe-5Cr-5W-5Mo-V-C systems[109]
Fig.6  A pseudo-binary phase diagram of (Fe-5Cr-5Mo-5W-2C)-V alloy system (T—temperature)[111]
Fig.7  Pseudo-binary phase diagram of (Fe-5Cr-2Mo-9V)-C alloy system[112]
Fig.8  The curves of iso-austenite (Ar—volume fraction of retained austenite, %)[108]
Fig.9  Relationship of retained austenite content (a) and hardness(b) vs quenching and tempering temperatures using back-propagation (BP) neural network[117]
Fig.10  SEM images of the worn cross-section under rolling sliding wear condition[113](a) high chromium cast iron (Cr20) (b) high-vanadium high-speed steel (V10)
Fig.11  Microstructures of V10[113](a) TEM image of VC (b) HRTEM of coherent interface of the VC/austenite matrix (d—interplanar spacing)
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